51 Từ vựng thường xuyên xuất hiện trong bài thi IELTS

51 Từ vựng thường xuyên xuất hiện trong bài thi IELTS

Đây đều là các từ vựng học thuật xuất hiện trong các bài thi IELTS đặc biệt là kĩ năng Reading. Tất cả từ vựng đều được cung cấp ngữ nghĩa và ví dụ cho các bạn dễ học và sử dụng.

1.      fragrant (adj): having a pleasant or sweet smell

Cinnamon is a sweet, fragrant spice.

2.      biblical (adj): relating to or based on the Bible

Cinnamon was known in biblical times, and is mentioned in several books of the Bible.

3.      condiment (n): a substance, such as salt, that you add to food to improve its taste

The ability to purchase an expensive condiment.

4.      exotic (adj): unusual and exciting because of coming a distant foreign country

an expensive condiment from the exotic’ East.

5.      at someone’s disposal (phr): available to be used by someone

At a banquet, a host would offer guests a plate with various spices piled upon it as a sign of the wealth at his or her disposal.

6.      the elite (n): the richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a society

The European middle classes began to desire the lifestyle of the elite, including their consumption of spices.

7.      merchant (n): a person or business that buys and sells goods

At that time, cinnamon was transported by Arab merchants.

8.      monopoly (n): complete control of an area of business

The English arrived on Ceylon, thereby displacing the Dutch from their control of the cinnamon monopoly.

9.      exorbitant (adj): unreasonably high

Because Venice had a virtual monopoly of the trade, the Venetians could set the price of cinnamon exorbitantly high.

10.   cultivation (n): the process of growing crops or plants

Before Europeans arrived on the island, the state had organized the cultivation of cinnamon.

11.   ethnic (adj): relating to a particular race of people

People belonging to the ethnic group called the Salagama would peel the bark off young shoots of the cinnamon plant in the rainy season.

12.   enslave (v): to make someone a slave

When the Portuguese arrived, they enslaved many other members of the Ceylonese native population.

13.   ally yourself to/with sb (phr): to start to support someone

The Dutch allied themselves with Kandy, an inland kingdom on Ceylon.

14.   expel (v): to force someone to leave a school, organization, or country

By 1658, the Dutch had permanently expelled the Portuguese from the island.

15.   lucrative (adj): producing a lot of money

gaining control of the lucrative cinnamon trade

16.   appetite (n): the feeling that you want to eat food

Europe’s ever-increasing appetite for cinnamon

17.   supersede (v): to replace something, especially something older or more old-fashioned

The spice trade overall was superseded by the rise of trade in coffee, tea.

18.      reinforce (v): to make stronger

reinforce the bonds between prairie voles

19.      trigger (v): to cause something to start

triggers the motherly behaviour

20.      empathetic (adj): showing an ability to understand and share the feelings of another

One sniff of oxytocin can make a person more trusting, empathetic, generous and cooperative.

21.      emerge (v): to appear, to come out of something

Oxytocin’s role in human behaviour first emerged in 2005.

22.      groundbreaking (adj): using new methods, innovative

in a groundbreaking experiment.

23.      placebo (n): a substance that is not medicine but that a patient who is taking it believes is medicine, and so they get better

The team found that participants who had sniffed oxytocin via a nasal spray beforehand invested more money than those who received a placebo instead.

24.      charitable (adj): kind, and not judging other people in a severe way

People become more charitable, better at reading emotions on others’ faces.

25.      fuel (v): to make something increase or become stronger

The results fuelled the view that oxytocin universally enhanced the positive aspects of our social nature.

26.      disposition (n): the particular type of character that a person naturally has

a person’s disposition

27.  conduct (v): to organize and perform a particular activity

studies conducted by Carolyn DeClerck of the University of Antwerp, Belgium

28.  favouritism (n): the practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or group

Volunteers given oxytocin showed favouritism.

29.  bias (n): inclination or prejudice for or against one person or group

It appears that oxytocin strengthens biases.

30.  goodwill (n): helpful, or cooperative feelings or attitude

promoting general goodwill

31.  subtlety (n): a small but important detail

There were signs of these subtleties from the start.

32.  take (no) notice of (phr): (not) pay attention; (not) show signs of interest

Researchers took no notice of such findings.

33.  attuned (to) (adj): receptive or aware

making people more attuned to their social environment.

34.  perplexing (adj): confusing, baffling, very puzzling

Perhaps we should not be surprised that the oxytocin story has become more perplexing.

35.  manifest (v): show, demonstrate

These basic processes could manifest in different ways.

36.      identify (v): to recognize

Most managers can identify the major trends of the day.

37.      profound (adj): serious, showing serious thought and wise ideas

recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers

38.      aspiration (n): something that you hope to achieve

consumers’ aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors

39.      jeopardize (v): to put something in danger of being harmed or damaged

They can jeopardize a company by ceding to rivals the opportunity to transform the industry.

40.      engender (v): to cause a feeling or attitude to exist

engender new value propositions in their core markets

41.      adept (at) (adj): skillful

adept at analyzing and exploiting trends

42.      opulence (n): great wealth or luxuriousness

The Coach brand had been a symbol of opulence and luxury for nearly 70 years.

43.      downturn (n): a reduction in economic or business activity

the economic downturn of 2008

44.      mindset (n): a way of thinking about things

Coach saw the new consumer mindset as an opportunity for innovation and renewal.

45.   commitment (n): a promise to do something, enthusiasm for something

the company’s commitment to protecting the environment

46.   augment (v): to increase the size or value of something

Tesco has augmented its business with these innovations.

47.   infuse (v): to fill someone or something with an emotion or quality

infusing its value proposition with a green streak

48.   incorporate (v): to include something as part of something larger

to incorporate elements of a seemingly irrelevant trend into one’s core offerings

49.   apparel (n): clothes of a special type

a focus on athletic apparel

50.   reinvigorate (v): to strengthen something or someone

The infuse-and-augment strategy will allow you to reinvigorate the category.

51.   counteract (v): to reduce the negative effect of something by doing something that has an opposite effect

The ME2 counteracted some of the widely perceived negative impacts of digital gaming devices.


By ZIM Academic English School

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