Câu tường thuật lớp 11 - Tổng quan lý thuyết và bài tập kèm đáp án

Bài viết này sẽ giới thiệu lý thuyết chi tiết và bài tập về câu tường thuật lớp 11 giúp học sinh đạt điểm cao trong các bài thi như kiểm tra 45 phút, kiểm tra học kỳ.
Trần Linh Giang
06/03/2024
cau tuong thuat lop 11 tong quan ly thuyet va bai tap kem dap an

Tổng quan lý thuyết về câu tường thuật lớp 11

Theo sách “Advanced Grammar in Use” (Martin Hewings), chúng ta thường sử dụng câu tường thuật để thuật lại những lời người khác nói khi thông tin muốn truyền tải quan trọng hơn là câu từ chính xác mà người nói đã sử dụng.

Học sinh lớp 11 sẽ phải làm quen và nắm rõ được những dạng câu tường thuật dưới đây:

Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu khẳng định

lý thuyết về câu tường thuật lớp 11

Công thức: S1 + reporting verb (+ that) + S2 + V.

Lưu ý:

  • Reporting verb – động từ tường thuật – là những động từ như say, ask, tell, propose, suppose, inform, mention, …

  • Khi chuyển từ câu được trích dẫn trực tiếp sang câu tường thuật, mệnh đề được tường thuật, tức vế sau reporting verb, thường sẽ được lùi thì.

Ví dụ:

  • She said: "I am going to the store." (Cô ấy nói: “Tôi đang đến cửa hàng.”)

→ She said that she was going to the store. (Cô ấy nói rằng cô ấy đang đến cửa hàng.)

Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu hỏi

Công thức:

Câu hỏi Wh-: S1 + asked + Wh- word + S2 + V.

Câu hỏi Yes/No: S1 + asked + if/whether + S2 + V.

Ví dụ:

  • Joan asked: "What time did you arrive, Ellen?" (Joan hỏi: “Bạn đến đây lúc mấy giờ vậy, Ellen?”)

→ Joan asked Ellen what time she had arrived. (Joan hỏi Ellen cô ấy đã đến lúc mấy giờ.)

  • He asked: "Did you enjoy the movie?" (Anh ấy hỏi: “Bạn có thích bộ phim vừa xem không?”)

→He wanted to know if I had enjoyed the movie. (Anh ấy muốn biết tôi có thích bộ phim vừa xem hay không.)

Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu điều kiện

lý thuyết câu tường thuật lớp 11

Công thức:

Type 0: S1 + reporting verb + if + S2 + V(present), S3 + V(present).

Type 1:

Nếu được tường thuật cùng lúc hoặc câu được tường thuật vẫn đúng: S1 + reporting verb + if + S2 + V(present), S3 + will V(bare).

Nếu câu được tường thuật đã không còn đúng nữa: S1 + reporting verb + if + S2 + V(past), S3 + would + V(bare).

Type 2:

Nếu câu được tường thuật vẫn đúng: S1 + reporting verb + if + S2 + V(past), S3 + would + V(bare).

Nếu câu được tường thuật đã không còn đúng nữa: S1 + reporting verb + if + S2 + had V(pp), S3 + would have + V(pp).

Type 3: S1 + reporting verb + if + S2 + had V(pp), S3 + would have + V(pp).

Ví dụ:

She said: "If I study hard, I will pass the exam." (Nếu cô ấy học hành chăm chỉ, cô ấy sẽ vượt qua kỳ thi.)

→ She mentioned that if she studied hard, she would pass the exam. (Cô ấy đề cập rằng nếu cô ấy học hành chăm chỉ, cô ấy sẽ vượt qua kỳ thi.)

He said: "If they had enough money, they would travel around the world." (Nếu họ có đủ tiền, họ sẽ du lịch quanh thế giới.)

→ He said that if they had enough money, they would travel around the world. (Anh ấy nói rằng nếu họ có đủ tiền, họ sẽ du lịch quanh thế giới.)

Nora: "If you had called me, I would have come to pick you up." (Nếu bạn đã gọi cho tôi, tôi sẽ đến đón bạn.)

→ Nora explained that if I had called her, she would have come to pick me up. (Nora giải thích rằng nếu tôi đã gọi cho cô ấy thì cô ấy đã đến đón tôi rồi.)

Câu tường thuật ở dạng câu mệnh lệnh, gợi ý

lý thuyết câu tường thuật lớp 11

Công thức:

Với những reporting verb là ask, advise, invite, order, tell, warn: S + reporting verb + O + to V.

Với những reporting verb là agree, offer, promise, refuse, threaten: S + reporting verb + to V.

Với những reporting verb là admit, apologise for, insist on, suggest: S + reporting verb + V-ing.

Ví dụ:

  • "Complete the project by the end of the week.", the manager advised the team. (“Hãy hoàn thành dự án trước cuối tuần nhé.”, người quản lý đã khuyên đội như vậy.)

→ The manager advised the team to complete the project by the end of the week. (Người quản lý khuyên đội nên hoàn thành dự án trước cuối tuần.)

  • Nam: “Okay, I will help you with the fundraising event.” (Nam: “Được rồi, tôi sẽ giúp các bạn tổ chức sự kiện gây quỹ.”)

→ Nam agreed to help us with the fundraising event. (Nam đã đồng ý giúp chúng tôi tổ chức sự kiện gây quỹ.)

  • "I'm sorry for being late to the meeting.", she apologised. (“Tôi xin lỗi vì đã đến họp muộn.”, cô ấy đã xin lỗi như thế.)

→ She apologised for being late to the meeting. (Cô ấy xin lỗi vì đã đến họp muộn.)

Xem thêm:

Bài tập câu tường thuật lớp 11 kèm đáp án

Chia động từ

  1. Yesterday, Mai proudly announced that she _______  (devise) a new experiment for the science fair.

  2. The group of environmentalist declared that their discovery _______  (revolutionise) the way researchers approached environmental issues.

  3. They mentioned that they _______  (already/book) the tickets to the concert the day before.

  4. The mathematics teacher asked us _______  (solve) the equation.

  5. During the debate, a student asked her opponents _______  (present) alternative methods for the issue.

  6. The scientist explained that if big companies _______  (implement) sustainable practices, they could mitigate the impact of climate change.

  7. The students admitted that they _______  (achieve) better results if they had dedicated more time to their research.

  8. The activist expressed that if they _______  (know) about the consequences, they wouldn't have supported the policy.

  9. Mr. Binh instructed the class _______  (do) a comprehensive analysis of the historical context.

  10. The science mentor warned us _______  (be) careful with our data analysis before presenting it.

  11. The literature club president proposed _______  (look) deeper into the philosophical implications of the literary work.

  12. The school principal insisted on _______  (organise) a conference to address pressing issues in contemporary literature.

  13. My teacher explained that if we had studied harder, we _______  (pass) the exam.

  14. The researcher shared that they _______  (plan) to collaborate with professionals in the field to enhance their understanding of the subject.

  15. Many people suggested _______  (reconsider) the curriculum to incorporate modern advancements in technology.

Đáp án

  1. had devised

  2. would revolutionise

  3. had already booked

  4. to solve

  5. to present

  6. implemented

  7. would have achieved

  8. had known

  9. to do

  10. to be

  11. looking

  12. organising

  13. would have passed

  14. planned

  15. reconsidering

Sắp xếp lại các từ để tạo thành câu có nghĩa

  1. weekend./ that/ the/ museum/ mentioned/ He/ previous/ he/ visited/ the/ had

  2. improved/ She/ has/ the/ explained/ policy/ satisfaction./ new/ employee/

  3. extended./ had/ manager/ been/ that/ deadline/ The/ stated/ the/ project/

  4. email/ about/ meeting./ if/ the/ received/ the/ They/ asked/ he/ had/

  5. to/ they/ She/ the/ conference./ know/ would/ wanted/ attend/ whether/ the/

  6. inquired/ completed/ assignments./ had/ the/ if/ teacher/ students/ their/ The/

  7. start/ Saturday./ time/ event/ on/ would/ the/ asked/ what/ He/ the/

  8. found/ they/ where/ book./ She/ such/ intriguing/ an/ had/ wondered/ the/

  9. inquired/ price/ why/ customer/ had/ the/ increased./ product/ The/

  10. purple./ clarified/ mix/ you/ and/ red/ get/ that/ She/ if/ you/ blue,/ the/

  11. how/ care/ that/ will/ emphasised/ the/ know/ plants,/ if/ you/ thrive./ take/

  12. Spanish,/ better./ communicate/ if/ she/ that/ He/ could/ mentioned/ spoke/

  13. quiet/ for/ to/ suggested/ a/ place/ study/ She/ the/ exam./ finding/

  14. phones/ presentation./ to/ phones/ during/ everyone/ He/ ordered/ their/ the/ silence/

  15. been/ about/ mentioned/ if/ traffic,/ wouldn't/ she/ late./ known/ the/ had/ He/ the/

Đáp án

  1. He mentioned that he visited the museum the previous weekend.

  2. She explained that the new policy has improved employee satisfaction.

  3. The manager stated that the project deadline had been extended.

  4. They asked if he had received the email about the meeting.

  5. She wanted to know whether they would attend the conference.

  6. The teacher inquired if the students had completed their assignments.

  7. He asked what time the event would start on Saturday.

  8. She wondered where they had found such an intriguing book.

  9. The customer inquired why the product price had increased.

  10. She clarified that if you mix red and blue, you get purple.

  11. She emphasised that if you know how take care the plants, they will thrive.

  12. He mentioned that if she spoke Spanish, she could communicate better.

  13. She suggested finding a quiet place to study for the exam.

  14. He ordered everyone to silence their phones during the presentation.

  15. He mentioned if she had known about the traffic, she wouldn't have been late.

Viết câu đúng ngữ pháp hoàn chỉnh sử dụng các từ gợi ý có sẵn

  1. The manager/ report/ the team/ successfully meet/ project goals.

  2. The engineer/ explain/ the new technology/ significantly/ increase/ efficiency.

  3. She/ ask/ they/ could/ implement/ the new software/ next week.

  4. The client/ want/ know/ the shipment/ had arrived/ on time.

  5. He/ asked/ what steps/ they/ take/ resolve/ the customer/ complaints.

  6. She/ wondered/ why/ company/ decide/ to restructure/ the organisational chart.

  7. The scientist/ explain/ you/ heat/ ice,/ it/ melt.

  8. He/ told/ us/ if/ it/ snow/ the next day,/ we/ wouldn’t/ go/ skiing.

  9. Eliza/ tell/ Chris/ he/ eat/ healthier,/ he/ might/ feel/ better.

  10. He/ explained/ they/ had/ booked/ earlier, they/ not/ miss/ the flight.

  11. He/ recommended/ everyone/ double-check/ their work/ before/ submit/ it.

  12. The chef/ insist/ use/ only/ fresh/ ingredient/ for/ best/ culinary experience.

  13. She/ advised/ participants/ follow/ safety guidelines/ during/ experiment.

  14. The manager/ threaten/ terminate/ contract/ if/ deadlines/ not/ meet.

  15. She/ apologise/ misunderstand/ his/ words.

Đáp án

  1. She mentioned the success of the marketing campaign last quarter.

  2. The engineer explained how the new technology significantly increased efficiency.

  3. She asked whether they could implement the new software the next week.

  4. The client wanted to know if the shipment had arrived on time.

  5. He asked what steps they had taken to resolve the customer complaints.

  6. She wondered why the company decided to restructure the organisational chart.

  7. The scientist explained that if you heat ice, it melts.

  8. He told us that if it snowed the next day, we wouldn’t go skiing.

  9. Eliza told Chris that if he ate healthier, he might feel better.

  10. He explained that if they had booked earlier, they wouldn't have missed the flight.

  11. He recommended everyone to double-check their work before submitting it.

  12. The chef insisted on using only fresh ingredients for the best culinary experience.

  13. She advised the participants to follow the safety guidelines during the experiment.

  14. The manager threatened to terminate the contract if the deadlines were not met.

  15. She apologised for misunderstanding his words.

Chuyển các câu trích dẫn trực tiếp dưới đây thành câu tường thuật

  1. Jack explained, "If you water the plants daily, they will thrive."

  2. The teacher said, "If you submit your assignment on time, you'll receive full credit."

  3. Sarah asked, "If I gave you more responsibilities, would you handle them well?"

  4. Alex advised, "If you exercise regularly, you'll notice significant improvements in your health."

  5. The scientist stated, "If we conduct this experiment, we should observe interesting results."

  6. Mark warned, "If you don't wear sunscreen, you may get sunburned."

  7. Emily inquired, "If we increased the budget, could we enhance the project's quality?"

  8. The coach encouraged, "If you practice your free throws every day, your basketball skills will improve."

  9. Susan promised, "If you come to the party, I'll introduce you to some interesting people."

  10. John admitted, "If I had known about the traffic, I would have taken a different route."

  11. The manager instructed, "If any issues arise, report them immediately."

  12. Rachel suggested, "If we leave early, we may be able to avoid heavy traffic on the way home."

  13. Chris asked, "If we switched to a more eco-friendly option, would it benefit the environment?"

  14. Lisa insisted, "If you apologise sincerely, she might forgive you for the misunderstanding."

  15. Tom proposed, "If we invest in new technology, we can streamline our workflow."

Đáp án

  1. Jack explained that if you water the plants daily, they will thrive.

  2. The teacher said that if you submit your assignment on time, you will receive full credit.

  3. Sarah asked if I would handle more responsibilities well if she gave them to me.

  4. Alex advised that if I exercise regularly, I'll notice significant improvements in my health.

  5. The scientist stated that if they conducted the experiment, they should observe interesting results.

  6. Mark warned that if I did not wear sunscreen, I might get sunburned.

  7. Emily inquired if they could enhance the project's quality by increasing the budget.

  8. The coach encouraged that if I practice free throws every day, my basketball skills will improve.

  9. Susan promised that if I came to the party, she would introduce me to some interesting people.

  10. John admitted that if he had known about the traffic, he would have taken a different route.

  11. The manager instructed us to report immediately if any issues arise.

  12. Rachel suggested that if we left early, we might be able to avoid heavy traffic on the way home.

  13. Chris asked if switching to a more eco-friendly option would benefit the environment.

  14. Lisa insisted that if I apologised sincerely, she might forgive me for the misunderstanding.

  15. Tom proposed that if they invested in new technology, they could streamline their workflow.

Hoàn thành câu với dạng đúng của động từ cho sẵn trong ô dưới đây

adhere

cover

diversify

take

add

dry

make

become

resolve

hold

experiment

incorporate

refuse

decide

explore

attend

  1. My baby sister recently learned that if she _______ sugar to something, the taste _______ sweeter.

  2. She asked if they _______ the issue with the software yet.

  3. He asked whether the team _______ the new proposal in the previous meeting.

  4. Duy admitted _______ a few mistakes on his previous papers a few months before.

  5. The manager wanted to know if the employees _______ the training the previous day.

  6. The child realised that if it's sunny, his clothes _______ more quickly.

  7. The advisor proposed _______ marketing strategies to reach different target audiences.

  8. They wanted to know what steps the company _______ to improve customer satisfaction.

  9. Britney wondered why they _______ to relocate the office.

  10. He stated that if it rained tomorrow, they _______ the outdoor event.

  11. Our team leader advised against _______ the client's request without offering an alternative.

  12. He recommended _______ new methods for efficiency.

  13. She insisted on _______ more visuals in the presentation for clarity.

  14. The doctor advised the patient _______ to the prescribed medication regimen for optimal recovery.

  15. She recommended _______ with alternative therapies to complement traditional medical treatments.

Đáp án

  1. adds – becomes

  2. had resolved

  3. had covered

  4. having made

  5. had attended

  6. dry

  7. diversifying

  8. had taken

  9. decided

  10. would not hold

  11. refusing

  12. exploring

  13. incorporating

  14. to adhere

  15. experimenting

Tham khảo thêm: Tổng hợp ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh lớp 11

Tổng kết

Phần câu tường thuật lớp 11 là một mảng ngữ pháp khá nâng cao, vì vậy học sinh cần luyện tập với nhiều dạng bài khác nhau để có thể nắm rõ. Bài viết này đã tổng hợp những kiến thức học sinh cần biết để xử lý các dạng bài tập trong kiểm tra và thi cử.


Tài liệu tham khảo

  • Hewings, Martin. “Unit 32-36.” Advanced Grammar in Use: A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Advanced Learners of English, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2023, pp. 64–72.

  • Hoàng, Vân Văn, editor. “Unit 10: Healthy Lifestyle and Longevity.” Sách Học Sinh: Tiếng Anh 11 - Tập Hai, NXB Giáo Dục Việt Nam, pp. 61–62.

Bạn muốn trở nên tự tin giao tiếp với bạn bè quốc tế hay nâng cao khả năng giao tiếp trong công việc và thăng tiến trong sự nghiệp. Hãy bắt đầu hành trình chinh phục mục tiêu với khóa học tiếng Anh giao tiếp hôm nay!

Trần Xuân Đạo

Đã kiểm duyệt nội dung
Là cử nhân loại giỏi chuyên ngành sư phạm tiếng Anh, điểm IELTS 8.0 ở cả hai lần thi, tôi hiện là giảng viên IELTS toàn thời gian tại ZIM Academy. Triết lý giáo dục của tôi là ai cũng có thể học tiếng Anh, chỉ cần cố gắng và có phương pháp học tập phù hợp. Tôi từng được đánh giá là "mất gốc" tiếng Anh ngày còn đi học phổ thông. Tuy nhiên, khi được tiếp cận với nhiều phương pháp giáo dục khác nhau và chọn được cách học phù hợp, tôi dần trở nên yêu thích tiếng Anh và từ đó dần cải thiện khả năng ngôn ngữ của mình. Tôi hy vọng rằng, hành trình này của tôi sẽ giúp người học có thêm nhiều động lực học tập.

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