Bài tập True/False/Not Given có đáp án - IELTS Reading Exercises

Trong bài thi IELTS Reading, thí sinh thường gặp khó khăn nhiều nhất khi làm dạng True/False/Not Given. Bài viết dưới đây sẽ khái quát ngắn gọn về tổng quan dạng bài, các bước xử lý cùng Bài tập IELTS Reading dạng True/False/Not Given có đáp án và giải thích chi tiết.
author
Nguyễn Ngọc Thảo
05/07/2024
bai tap truefalsenot given co dap an ielts reading exercises

Key takeaways

  • Tổng quan về dạng bài True/False/Not Given trong IELTS Reading.

  • Các bước làm dạng bài True/False/Not Given:

    • Bước 1: Xác định rõ câu hỏi yêu cầu True/False/Not Given hay Yes/No/Not given.

    • Bước 2: Gạch chân từ khóa có trong các nhận định. Ưu tiên các từ khóa không thể thay thế.

    • Bước 3: Xác định khoảng đoạn cần đọc nhờ vào Scanning từ khóa ở nhận định đầu và nhận định cuối cùng trong bài True/False/Not Given đó.

    • Bước 4: Xác định câu chứa thông tin cho nhận định đầu tiên. Sau đó, so sánh từng cụm thông tin trong nhận định với từng cụm thông tin trong câu gốc chứa thông tin vừa tìm được.

    • Bước 5: Xác định đáp án True/False/Not Given.

  • IELTS Reading Exercises - Dạng bài True/False/Not Given:

    • Exercise 1: Urban farming

    • Exercise 2: The Story of Silk

    • Exercise 3: Stonehenge

Tổng quan về dạng bài True/False/Not Given trong IELTS Reading

Yêu cầu của dạng bài True/False/Not Given

Dạng bài True/False/Not Given sẽ đưa ra một danh sách nhận định có liên quan đến nội dung được nhắc đến trong bài đọc. Nhiệm vụ của thí sinh là xác định liệu những nhận định đó có: khớp hoàn toàn với thông tin trong bài đọc (True) hay Sai với thông tin trong bài đọc (False); hay Không có thông tin trong bài đọc để kết luận (Not Given).

Thông thường dạng bài này sẽ xuất hiện trong từ 1 đến 2 bài đọc thuộc đề thi, do vậy để đạt điểm cao tài kỹ năng này, thí sinh cần phải luyện tập thành thục kỹ năng và chiến lược làm bài dạng này

Các bước làm dạng bài True/False/Not Given

Trước khi làm:

Bước 1: Xác định rõ câu hỏi yêu cầu True/False/Not Given hay Yes/No/Not given.

Bước 2: Gạch chân từ khóa có trong các nhận định. Ưu tiên các từ khóa không thể thay thế bao gồm tên riêng, số liệu, năm,…

Bước 3: Xác định khoảng đoạn cần đọc nhờ vào Scanning từ khóa ở nhận định đầu và nhận định cuối cùng trong bài True/False/Not Given đó.

Trong khi làm:

Bước 4: Xác định câu chứa thông tin cho nhận định đầu tiên. Sau đó, so sánh từng cụm thông tin trong nhận định với từng cụm thông tin trong câu gốc vừa tìm được.

Bước 5: Xác định đáp án bằng cách:

  • TRUE: Tất cả các cụm thông tin trong nhận định đều được paraphrase trong câu gốc của bài đọc.

  • FALSE: Có ít nhất 1 cụm thông tin trong nhận định trái ngược với cụm thông tin tương ứng  trong câu gốc của bài đọc.

  • NOT GIVEN: Có ít nhất 1 cụm thông tin trong nhận định không xuất hiện/ hay không được paraphrase bởi bất kì cụm thông tin nào trong câu gốc của bài đọc.

Lưu ý: 

  • Trật tự câu hỏi chính là trật tự thông tin xuất hiện trong đoạn văn. Điều này có nghĩa là sau khi đã tìm ra vị trí thông tin cho câu hỏi 1, khi chuyển sang câu hỏi kế tiếp, thí sinh đọc tiếp mà không cần đọc lại bài đọc từ đầu.

  • Thông thường thông tin cho dạng bài True/False/Not Given trong một passage chỉ xuất hiện ở một số đoạn, do vậy thí sinh nên sử dụng kỹ thuật scanning keywords và không cần đọc hết bài đọc.

Tham khảo thêm: Phân biệt True, False, Not Given trong IELTS Reading.

Bài tập True/False/Not Given có đáp án

Exercise 1

(Nguồn: Passage 1, Test 1, Cambridge IELTS Academic 18)

Urban farming

In Paris, urban farmers are trying a soil-free approach to agriculture that uses less space and fewer resources. Could it help cities face the threats to our food supplies?

On top of a striking new exhibition hall in southern Paris, the world's largest urban rooftop farm has started to bear fruit. Strawberries that are small, intensely flavoured and resplendently red sprout abundantly from large plastic tubes. Peer inside and you see the tubes are completely hollow, the roots of dozens of strawberry plants dangling down inside them. From identical vertical tubes nearby burst row upon row of lettuces; near those are aromatic herbs, such as basil, sage and peppermint. Opposite, in narrow, horizontal trays packed not with soil but with coconut fibre, grow cherry tomatoes, shiny aubergines and brightly coloured chards.

Pascal Hardy, an engineer and sustainable development consultant, began experimenting with vertical farming and aeroponic growing towers – as the soil-free plastic tubes are known – on his Paris apartment block roof five years ago. The urban rooftop space above the exhibition hall is somewhat bigger: 14,000 square metres and almost exactly the size of a couple of football pitches. Already, the team of young urban farmers who tend it have picked, in one day, 3,000 lettuces and 150 punnets of strawberries. When the remaining two thirds of the vast open area are in production, 20 staff will harvest up to 1,000 kg of perhaps 35 different varieties of fruit and vegetables, every day. ‘We're not ever, obviously, going to feed the whole city this way,’ cautions Hardy. 'In the urban environment you're working with very significant practical constraints, clearly, on what you can do and where. But if enough unused space can be developed like this, there's no reason why you shouldn't eventually target maybe between 5% and 10% of consumption.'

Perhaps most significantly, however, this is a real-life showcase for the work of Hardy's flourishing urban agriculture consultancy, Agripolis, which is currently fielding enquiries from around the world to design, build and equip a new breed of soil-free inner-city farm. 'The method's advantages are many,' he says. First, I don't much like the fact that most of the fruit and vegetables we eat have been treated with something like 17 different pesticides, or that the intensive farming techniques that produced them are such huge generators of greenhouse I gases. I don't much like the fact, either, that they've travelled an average of 2,000 refrigerated kilometres to my plate, that their quality is so poor, because the varieties are selected for their capacity to withstand such substantial journeys, or that 80% of the price I pay goes to wholesalers and transport companies, not the producers.'

Produce grown using this soil-free method, on the other hand – which relies solely on a small quantity of water, enriched with organic nutrients, pumped around a closed circuit of pipes, towers and trays – is produced up here, and sold locally, just down there. It barely travels at all,' Hardy says. 'You can select crop varieties for their flavour, not their resistance to the transport and storage chain, and you can pick them when they're really at their best, and not before.' No soil is exhausted, and the water that gently showers the plants' roots every 12 minutes is recycled, SO the method uses 90% less water than a classic intensive farm for the same yield.

Urban farming is not, of course, a new phenomenon. Inner-city agriculture is booming from Shanghai to Detroit and Tokyo to Bangkok. Strawberries are being grown in disused shipping containers, mushrooms in underground carparks. Aeroponic farming, he says, is 'virtuous'. The equipment weighs little, can be installed on almost any flat surface and is cheap to buy: roughly €100 to €150 per square metre. It is cheap to run, too, consuming a tiny fraction of the electricity used by some techniques.

Produce grown this way typically sells at prices that, while generally higher than those of classic intensive agriculture, are lower than soil-based organic growers. There are limits to what farmers can grow this way, of course, and much of the produce is suited to the summer months. 'Root vegetables we cannot do, at least not yet,' he says. 'Radishes are OK, but carrots, potatoes, that kind of thing – the roots are simply too long. Fruit trees are obviously not an option. And beans tend to take up a lot of space for not much return.' Nevertheless, urban farming of the kind being practised in Paris is one part of a bigger and fast-changing picture that is bringing food production closer to our lives.

Questions 8-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

8 Urban farming can take place above or below ground.

9 Some of the equipment used in aeroponic farming can be made by hand.

10 Urban farming relies more on electricity than some other types of farming.

11 Fruit and vegetables grown on an aeroponic urban farm are cheaper than traditionally grown organic produce.

12 Most produce can be grown on an aeroponic urban farm at any time of the year.

13 Beans take longer to grow on an urban farm than other vegetables.

Exercise 2

(Nguồn: Passage 1, Test 3, Cambridge IELTS Academic 11)

The Story of Silk

The history of the world’s most luxurious fabric, from ancient China to the present day

Silk is a fine, smooth material produced from the cocoons - soft protective shells - that are made by mulberry silkworms (insect larvae). Legend has it that it was Lei Tzu, wife of the Yellow Emperor, ruler of China in about 3000 BC, who discovered silkworms. One account of the story goes that as she was taking a walk in her husband’s gardens, she discovered that silkworms were responsible for the destruction of several mulberry trees. She collected a number of cocoons and sat down to have a rest. It just so happened that while she was sipping some tea, one of the cocoons that she had collected landed in the hot tea and started to unravel into a fine thread. Lei Tzu found that she could wind this thread around her fingers. Subsequently, she persuaded her husband to allow her to rear silkworms on a grove of mulberry trees. She also devised a special reel to draw the fibres from the cocoon into a single thread so that they would be strong enough to be woven into fabric. While it is unknown just how much of this is true, it is certainly known that silk cultivation has existed in China for several millennia.

Originally, silkworm farming was solely restricted to women, and it was they who were responsible for the growing, harvesting and weaving. Silk quickly grew into a symbol of status, and originally, only royalty were entitled to have clothes made of silk. The rules were gradually relaxed over the years until finally during the Qing Dynasty (1644—1911 AD), even peasants, the lowest caste, were also entitled to wear silk. Sometime during the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), silk was so prized that it was also used as a unit of currency. Government officials were paid their salary in silk, and farmers paid their taxes in grain and silk. Silk was also used as diplomatic gifts by the emperor. Fishing lines, bowstrings, musical instruments and paper were all made using silk. The earliest indication of silk paper being used was discovered in the tomb of a noble who is estimated to have died around 168 AD.

Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver, and wool to the East. It was named the Silk Road after its most precious commodity, which was considered to be worth more than gold. The Silk Road stretched over 6,000 kilometers from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea, following the Great Wall of China, climbing the Pamir mountain range, crossing modern-day Afghanistan, and going on to the Middle East, with a major trading market in Damascus. From there, the merchandise was shipped across the Mediterranean Sea. Few merchants traveled the entire route; goods were handled mostly by a series of middlemen.

With the mulberry silkworm being native to China, the country was the world’s sole producer of silk for many hundreds of years. The secret of silk-making eventually reached the rest of the world via the Byzantine Empire, which ruled over the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East during the period 330—1453 AD. According to another legend, monks working for the Byzantine emperor Justinian smuggle silkworm eggs to Constantinople (Istanbul in modern-day Turkey) in 550 AD, concealed inside hollow bamboo walking canes. The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese, however, and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly. Then in the seventh century, the Arabs conquered Persia, capturing their magnificent silks in the process.

Silk production thus spread through Africa, Sicily and Spain as the Arabs swept, through these lands. Andalusia in southern Spain was Europe’s main silk-producing centre in the tenth century. By the thirteenth century, however, Italy had become Europe’s leader in silk production and export. Venetian merchants traded extensively in silk and encouraged silk growers to settle in Italy. Even now, silk processed in the province of Como in northern Italy enjoys an esteemed reputation.

The nineteenth century and industrialization saw the downfall of the European silk industry. Cheaper Japanese silk, trade in which was greatly facilitated by the opening of the Suez Canal, was one of the many factors driving the trend. Then in the twentieth century, new manmade fibers, such as nylon, started to be used in what had traditionally been silk products, such as stockings and parachutes. The two world wars, which interrupted the supply of raw material from Japan, also stifled the European silk industry. After the Second World War, Japan’s silk production was restored, with improved production and quality of raw silk. Japan was to remain the world’s biggest producer of raw silk, and practically the only major exporter of raw silk, until the 1970s. However, in more recent decades, China has gradually recaptured its position as the world’s biggest producer and exporter of raw silk and silk yarn. Today, around 125,000 metric tons of silk are produced in the world, and almost two-thirds of that production takes place in China.

Questions 10 - 13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 10 - 13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

10. Gold was the most valuable material transported along the Silk Road.

11. Most tradesmen only went along certain sections of the Silk Road.

12.. The Byzantines spread the practice of silk production across the West.

13. Silk yarn makes up the majority of silk currently exported from China.

Tham khảo thêm: Áp dụng phương pháp tách và xác định thành phần câu trong IELTS Reading dạng T/F/NG hay Y/N/NG.

Exercise 3

(Nguồn: Passage 1, Test 2, Cambridge IELTS Academic 18)

Stonehenge

For centuries, historians and archaeologists have puzzled over the many mysteries of Stonehenge, a prehistoric monument that took an estimated 1,500 years to erect. Located on Salisbury Plain in southern England, it is comprised of roughly 100 massive upright stones placed in a circular layout.

Archaeologists believe England's most iconic prehistoric ruin was built in several stages, with the earliest constructed 5,000 or more years ago. First, Neolithic* Britons used primitive tools, which may have been fashioned out of deer antlers, to dig a massive circular ditch and bank, or henge. Deep pits dating back to that era and located within the circle may have once held a ring of timber posts, according to some scholars.

Several hundred years later, it is thought, Stonehenge's builders hoisted an estimated 80 bluestones, 43 of which remain today, into standing positions and placed them in either a horseshoe or circular formation. These stones have been traced all the way to the Preseli Hills in Wales, some 300 kilometres from Stonehenge. How, then, did prehistoric builders without sophisticated tools or engineering haul these boulders, which weigh up to four tons, over such a great distance?

According to one long-standing theory among archaeologists, Stonehenge's builders fashioned sledges and rollers out of tree trunks to lug the bluestones from the Preseli Hills. They then transferred the boulders onto rafts and floated them first along the Welsh coast and then up the River Avon toward Salisbury Plain; alternatively, they may have towed each stone with a fleet of vessels. More recent archaeological hypotheses have them transporting the bluestones with supersized wicker baskets on a combination of ball bearings and long grooved planks, hauled by oxen.

As early as the 1970s, geologists have been adding their voices to the debate over how Stonehenge came into being. Challenging the classic image of industrious builders pushing, carting, rolling or hauling giant stones from faraway Wales, some scientists have suggested that it was glaciers, not humans, that carried the bluestones to Salisbury Plain. Most archaeologists have remained sceptical about this theory, however, wondering how the forces of nature could possibly have delivered the exact number of stones needed to complete the circle.

The third phase of construction took place around 2000 BCE. At this point, sandstone slabs – known as 'sarsens' – were arranged into an outer crescent or ring; some were assembled into the iconic three-pieced structures called trilithons that stand tall in the centre of Stonehenge. Some 50 of these stones are now visible on the site, which may once have contained many more. Radiocarbon dating has revealed that work continued at Stonehenge until roughly 1600 BCE, with the bluestones in particular being repositioned multiple times.

But who were the builders of Stonehenge? In the 17th century, archaeologist John Aubrey made the claim that Stonehenge was the work of druids, who had important religious, judicial and political roles in Celtic society. This theory was widely popularized by the antiquarian William Stukeley, who had unearthed primitive graves at the site. Even today, people who identify as modern druids continue to gather at Stonehenge for the summer solstice. However, in the mid-20th century, radiocarbon dating demonstrated that Stonehenge stood more than 1,000 years before the Celts inhabited the region.

Many modern historians and archaeologists now agree that several distinct tribes of people contributed to Stonehenge, each undertaking a different phase of its construction. Bones, tools and other artefacts found on the site seem to support this hypothesis. The first stage was achieved by Neolithic agrarians who were likely to have been indigenous to the British Isles. Later, it is believed, groups with advanced tools and a more communal way of life left their mark on the site. Some believe that they were immigrants from the European continent, while others maintain that they were probably native Britons, descended from the original builders.

If the facts surrounding the architects and construction of Stonehenge remain shadowy at best, the purpose of the striking monument is even more of a mystery. While there is consensus among the majority of modern scholars that Stonehenge once served the function of burial ground, they have yet to determine what other purposes it had.

In the 1960s, the astronomer Gerald Hawkins suggested that the cluster of megalithic stones operated as a form of calendar, with different points corresponding to astrological phenomena such as solstices, equinoxes and eclipses occurring at different times of the year. While his theory has received a considerable amount of attention over the decades, critics maintain that Stonehenge's builders probably lacked the knowledge necessary to predict such events or that England's dense cloud cover would have obscured their view of the skies.

More recently, signs of illness and injury in the human remains unearthed at Stonehenge led a group of British archaeologists to speculate that it was considered a place of healing, perhaps because bluestones were thought to have curative powers.

Questions 9-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

9 During the third phase of construction, sandstone slabs were placed in both the outer areas and the middle of the Stonehenge site.

10 There is scientific proof that the bluestones stood in the same spot until approximately 1600 BCE.

11 John Aubrey's claim about Stonehenge was supported by 20th-century findings.

12 Objects discovered at Stonehenge seem to indicate that it was constructed by a number of different groups of people.

13 Criticism of Gerald Hawkins' theory about Stonehenge has come mainly from other astronomers.

Đáp án và giải thích

Exercise 1

Đáp án:

Câu

Đáp án

8

TRUE

9

NOT GIVEN

10

FALSE

11

TRUE

12

FALSE

13

NOT GIVEN

Giải thích:

8. Urban farming can take place above or below ground.

Vị trí thông tin:

On top of a striking new exhibition hall in southern Paris, the world's largest urban rooftop farm has started to bear fruit.

Urban farming is not, of course, a new phenomenon. Inner-city agriculture is booming from Shanghai to Detroit and Tokyo to Bangkok. Strawberries are being grown in disused shipping containers, mushrooms in underground carparks.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng mô hình trang trại đô thị có thể thực hiện được ở trên các mái nhà (“rooftop” khớp với “above ground”), và mô hình này cũng được thực hiện ở các bãi đỗ xe dưới lòng đất (“underground” khớp với “below ground”). Vì vậy, đáp án là TRUE.

9. Some of the equipment used in aeroponic farming can be made by hand.

Vị trí thông tin:

The equipment weighs little, can be installed on almost any flat surface and is cheap to buy: roughly €100 to €150 per square metre. It is cheap to run, too, consuming a tiny fraction of the electricity used by some techniques.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng thiết bị nhẹ, có thể được lắp đặt trên hầu hết mọi bề mặt mặt phẳng và chi phí rẻ, nhưng không đề cập đến thông tin “Một số thiết bị có thể được chế tạo bằng tay”. Vì vậy, đáp án là NOT GIVEN.

10. Urban farming relies more on electricity than some other types of farming.

Vị trí thông tin:

Aeroponic farming, he says, is 'virtuous'. The equipment weighs little, can be installed on almost any flat surface and is cheap to buy: roughly €100 to €150 per square metre. It is cheap to run, too, consuming a tiny fraction of the electricity used by some techniques.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng chi phí vận hành phương pháp canh tác khí canh (“Aeroponic farming” khớp với “Urban farming”) rất rẻ vì nó chỉ tiêu thụ một phần điện năng rất nhỏ (“consuming a tiny fraction of the electricity” trái ngược với “relies more on electricity”) so với những kỹ thuật khác (“some techniques” khớp với “some other types of farming”). Vì vậy, đáp án là FALSE.

11. Fruit and vegetables grown on an aeroponic urban farm are cheaper than traditionally grown organic produce.

Vị trí thông tin:

Produce grown this way typically sells at prices that, while generally higher than those of classic intensive agriculture, are lower than soil-based organic growers.  There are limits to what farmers can grow this way, of course, and much of the produce is suited to the summer months.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng nông sản (“Produce” khớp với “Fruit and vegetables”) được trồng theo phương pháp canh tác khí canh thường bán với giá thấp hơn (“lower” khớp với “cheaper”) so với người trồng trọt hữu cơ trên đất (“soil-based organic” khớp với “traditionally grown organic”). Vì vậy, đáp án là TRUE.

12. Most produce can be grown on an aeroponic urban farm at any time of the year.

Vị trí thông tin:

There are limits to what farmers can grow this way, of course, and much of the produce is suited to the summer months. 'Root vegetables we cannot do, at least not yet,' he says.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng có những hạn chế trong phương pháp trồng này và hầu hết các loại nông sản (“much of the produce” khớp với “Most produce”) chỉ phù hợp trồng vào tháng hè (“summer months” trái ngược với “at any time of the year”). Vì vậy, đáp án là FALSE.

13. Beans take longer to grow on an urban farm than other vegetables.

Vị trí thông tin:

And beans tend to take up a lot of space for not much return. Nevertheless, urban farming of the kind being practised in Paris is one part of a bigger and fast-changing picture that is bringing food production closer to our lives.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng các hạt đậu có xu hướng chiếm nhiều không gian (“ take up a lot of space”) chứ không đề cập đến yếu tố mất nhiều thời gian để lớn (“take longer to grow”). Vì vậy, đáp án là NOT GIVEN.

Đọc thêm: Luyện tập khả năng so sánh phân tích cải thiện bài True/False/Not Given & Yes/No/Not Given.

Exercise 2

Đáp án:

Câu

Đáp án

10

FALSE

11

TRUE

12

FALSE

13

NOT GIVEN

Giải thích:

10. Gold was the most valuable material transported along the Silk Road.

Vị trí thông tin: Demand for this exotic fabric eventually created the lucrative trade route now known as the Silk Road, taking silk westward and bringing gold, silver, and wool to the East. It was named the Silk Road after its most precious commodity, which was considered to be worth more than gold

Giải thích:

  • It was named the Silk Road after its most precious commodity: bởi vì sự quý giá của silk mà con đường được đặt tên là Silk Road. 

  • Which was considered to be worth more than gold: “Which” ở đây nhấn mạnh cho “silk” - cái mà có giá trị hơn cả vàng. 

  • Gold was the most valuable material >< Silk was considered to be worth more than gold.

  • Ngược lại với thông tin trong câu hỏi nên câu này là False 

11. Most tradesmen only went along certain sections of the Silk Road.

Vị trí thông tin: Few merchants traveled the entire route; goods were handled mostly by a series of middlemen.

Giải thích:

  • Most tradesmen (hầu hết các thương gia) = a series of middlemen (một loạt người trung gian = bán hàng trung gian)

  • Only went along certain sections of the Silk Road (chỉ đi 1 số đoạn nhất định trên đường Silk Road) = Few merchants traveled the entire route (rất ít thương nhân đi hết toàn bộ con đường)

  • Đại ý của câu trên có nghĩa là: Rất ít thương gia đi hết cả con đường, và giao dịch chủ yếu thông qua người trung gian (middlemen = tradesmen). 

→ Hầu hết các thương gia chỉ đi 1 số đoạn nhất định trên đường Silk Road. Các thông tin đều khớp với nhau, nên câu này là True.

12. The Byzantines spread the practice of silk production across the West.

Vị trí thông tin: The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese, however, and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly. Then in the seventh century, the Arabs conquered Persia, capturing their magnificent silks in the process. Silk production thus spread through Africa, Sicily and Spain as the Arabs swept, through these lands.

Giải thích: Cả 3 câu đang miêu tả quá trình mở rộng sản xuất của Silk khắp phương Tây:

  • Câu 1: The Byzantines rất bí mật, và trong suốt mất thập kỷ, sự giao thương là độc quyền nghiêm ngặt của đế quốc. => Chưa có spread (lan rộng)

  • Câu 2: The Arabs xâm chiếm Persia, và lấy được kỹ năng sản xuất.

  • Câu 3: Silk production lan rộng khắp Africa, Sicily and Spain bởi vì the Arabs truyền bá. 

So sánh các cụm từ bên câu hỏi, The Byzantines spread the practice of silk production >< The Arabs spread the practice of silk production. Ngược lại với thông tin trong câu hỏi nên câu này là False.

13. Silk yarn makes up the majority of silk currently exported from China.

Vị trí thông tin: China has gradually recaptured its position as the world’s biggest producer and exporter of raw silk and silk yarn.

Giải thích: Đại ý của câu trên: China là nhà sản xuất và xuất khẩu silk lớn nhất. Tuy nhiên so sánh với bài đọc, không có thông tin về việc “Silk yarn chiếm phần lớn silk được xuất khẩu từ Trung Quốc”. Do vậy đáp án là Not given.

Đọc thêm: Ứng dụng Evaluative Thinking trong IELTS Reading dạng bài True/False/Not Given và Yes/No/Not Given.

Exercise 3

Đáp án:

Câu

Đáp án

9

TRUE

10

FALSE

11

FALSE

12

TRUE

13

NOT GIVEN

Giải thích:

9. During the third phase of construction, sandstone slabs were placed both the outer areas and the middle of the Stonehenge site.

Vị trí thông tin: 

The third phase of construction took place around 2000 BCE. At this point, sandstone slabs – known as 'sarsens' – were arranged into an outer crescent or ring; some were assembled into the iconic three-pieced structures called trilithons that stand tall in the centre of Stonehenge.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng vào giai đoạn ba của cuộc thi công, những tấm bê tông đá được đặt (“were arranged into” khớp với “were placed” trong đề) ở ngoài vòng (“an outer crescent or ring” khớp với “the outer areas” ) và cả ở tâm Stonehenge (“in the centre of Stonehenge” khớp với “the middle of Stonehenge site” trong đề). Vì vậy, đáp án là TRUE.

10. There is scientific proof that the bluestones stood in the same spot until approximately 1600 BCE.

Vị trí thông tin: 

Radiocarbon dating has revealed that work continued at Stonehenge until roughly 1600 BCE, with the bluestones in particular being repositioned multiple times.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng những tảng đá xanh được xê dịch nhiều lần (“repositioned multiple times” trái ngược với “stood in the same spot” trong đề) cho đến khoảng năm 1600 trước Công Nguyên. Vì vậy, đáp án là FALSE.

11. John Aubrey's claim about Stonehenge was supported by 20th-century findings.

Vị trí thông tin: 

In the 17th century, archaeologist John Aubrey made the claim that Stonehenge was the work of druids, who had important religious, judicial and political roles in Celtic society. This theory was widely popularized by the antiquarian William Stukeley, who had unearthed primitive graves at the site. Even today, people who identify as modern druids continue to gather at Stonehenge for the summer solstice. However, in the mid-20th century, radiocarbon dating demonstrated that Stonehenge stood more than 1,000 years before the Celts inhabited the region.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng vào thế kỷ 17, John Aubrey cho rằng Stonehenge là công trình của những thầy tu (druids) thuộc xã hội Celtic (Celtic society). Tuy nhiên, vào giữa thế kỷ 20 (in the mid-20th century), đã có khám phá chứng minh rằng Stonehenge đã tồn tại hơn 1000 năm trước khi người Celtic tới sinh sống tại vùng này (Stonehenge stood more than 1,000 years before the Celts inhabited the region), nên nói khám phá của John Aubrey được ủng hộ bởi (supported by) những khám phá vào thế kỷ 20 là sai. Vì vậy, đáp án là FALSE.

12. Objects discovered at Stonehenge seem to indicate that it was constructed by a number of different groups of people.

Vị trí thông tin: 

Many modern historians and archaeologists now agree that several distinct tribes of people contributed to Stonehenge, each undertaking a different phase of its construction. Bones, tools and other artefacts found on the site seem to support this hypothesis.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung rằng nhiều nhà sử học và khảo cổ học đồng ý rằng có một số bộ lạc khác nhau đã góp phần xây nên Stonehenge (“several distinct tribes of people contributed to Stonehenge” khớp với “ it was constructed by a number of different groups of people” trong đề). Vì vậy, đáp án là TRUE.

13. Criticism of Gerald Hawkins' theory about Stonehenge has come mainly from other astronomers.

Vị trí thông tin: 

In the 1960s, the astronomer Gerald Hawkins suggested that the cluster of megalithic stones operated as a form of calendar, with different points corresponding to astrological phenomena such as solstices, equinoxes and eclipses occurring at different times of the year. While his theory has received a considerable amount of attention over the decades, critics maintain that Stonehenge's builders probably lacked the knowledge necessary to predict such events or that England's dense cloud cover would have obscured their view of the skies.

Giải thích:

Bài đọc thể hiện nội dung giả thuyết của Gerald Hawkins nhận được sự quan tâm qua nhiều thập kỷ, chứ không đề cập những nhà phê bình (critics) đó có phải là những nhà thiên văn học (astronomers) hay không. Vì vậy, đáp án là NOT GIVEN.

Tổng kết

Bài viết trên đây đã khái quát thông tin về dạng bài cùng bài tập True/False/Not Given IELTS Reading Exercises có đáp án. Hy vọng rằng thông qua bài viết, người đọc đã hiểu hơn về cách thức làm dạng bài này.

Để có cơ hội cọ sát với nhiều đề thi IELTS Reading hơn, người học có thể tham khảo kho đề thi thử IELTS Practice Test của ZIM: Tại đây.

Đọc thêm: Một số lỗi lập luận cần biết khi làm True/False/Not Given trong IELTS Reading.


Tài liệu tham khảo

  • Passage 1, Test 1, Cambridge IELTS Academic 18

  • Passage 1, Test 3, Cambridge IELTS Academic 11

  • Passage 1, Test 2, Cambridge IELTS Academic 18

  • ZIM, Anh Ngữ. “Giải Cam 18, Test 2, Reading Passage 1: Stonehenge.” ZIM Academy, 15 May 2024, zim.vn/cam-18-test-2-reading-passage-1-stonehenge. Accessed 19 May 2024. 

  • ZIM, Anh Ngữ. “Giải Cam 18, Test 1, Reading Passage 1: Urban Farming.” ZIM Academy, 16 May 2024, zim.vn/cam-18-test-1-reading-passage-1-urban-farming. Accessed 19 May 2024. 

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