Luyện tập sử dụng câu chẻ tự nhiên trong IELTS Speaking

Nhiều học viên gặp khó khăn trong việc đa dạng hoá các cách trả lời, đồng thời hạn chế câu đơn trong bài nói của mình. Bài viết này sẽ cung cấp một cấu trúc ngữ pháp mà có thể giúp người học giải quyết các vấn đề trên, đồng thời khiến cho bài nói trở nên tự nhiên hơn một khi người học thuần thục - đó là sử dụng câu chẻ.
luyen tap su dung cau che tu nhien trong ielts speaking

Key takeaways

Cấu trúc câu chẻ: 

  • It-cleft

  • Wh-cleft

Trường hợp nên sử dụng câu chẻ:

  • Câu hỏi thông tin cụ thể với What/When/Where/Why/Who/Which

  • Sử dụng trong Part 2 để mở đầu hoặc để nhấn mạnh thông tin

Cùng chủ đề: Làm thế nào để tăng tính tự nhiên trong bài thi IELTS Speaking?

Lý thuyết

Tại sao cần sử dụng câu chẻ?

Sử dụng câu cleft trong bài nói IELTS có thể giúp thí sinh thể hiện sự rộng lớn của từ vựng và sự phức tạp hay phạm vi lớn của ngữ pháp của mình. Câu chẻ cũng cho phép thí sinh nhấn mạnh thông tin nhất định, khiến câu trả lời của họ trở nên sống động và thú vị hơn, có thể giúp cải thiện điểm số của bạn.

Ví dụ:

Examiner: Who taught you how to fix things?

Candidate 1: My father taught me.

Candidate 2: It was my father who showed me how to fix broken things in our house.

Từ ví dụ trên có thể thấy, việc sử dụng câu chẻ thuần thục sẽ khiến câu trả lời tốt hơn về độ dài, ngữ pháp (sử dụng câu phức thay cho câu đơn và câu phức này cũng là một nét ngữ pháp phức tạp), tất cả điều này đều góp phần giúp thí sinh đạt được điểm cao hơn trong bài thi Nói của mình.

Đã có bài viết rất chi tiết về câu chẻ, bạn đọc có thể xem thêm ở bài viết: Cách ứng dụng Cleft sentence (Câu chẻ) vào câu trả lời IELTS Speaking.

Bài viết này sẽ tập trung vào các trường hợp tự nhiên có thể dùng câu chẻ và cung cấp cơ hội luyện tập cho người học.

image-alt

Cấu trúc câu chẻ

Câu cleft là câu phức, được chia (hoặc 'cleft') thành hai phần, mỗi phần đều có động từ riêng, để nhấn mạnh thông tin cụ thể. Có hai kiểu câu chẻ:

1. Câu It-cleft: Những câu này bắt đầu bằng "it" theo sau là động từ "be", sau đó là thông tin được nhấn mạnh, và cuối cùng là phần còn lại của câu.

  • Cấu trúc:

    It + is/was + thông tin được nhấn mạnh + that/who/which/… + phần còn lại của thông tin.

  • Ví dụ:It is in the library that I enjoy reading books.”

2. Câu Wh-cleft: Những câu này bắt đầu bằng một từ hỏi như "what," theo sau là động từ và phần còn lại của câu.

  • Cấu trúc:

    What + động từ + phần còn lại của thông tin + is/was + thông tin được nhấn mạnh.

  • Ví dụ: “What I like about reading is that it relaxes me.”

Các trường hợp sử dụng câu chẻ tự nhiên

Khi câu hỏi hỏi một thông tin cụ thể

Trong bài thi Nói, có nhiều câu hỏi được hỏi bằng các từ để hỏi như “Who, When, Where, What, Why, Which”. Đây đều là các câu hỏi thông tin cụ thể và do đó, thí sinh có thể sử dụng cấu trúc câu chẻ để đưa ra các câu trả lời một cách tự nhiên. 

Sau đây là các ví dụ:

Question 1: Who is the person you admire most?

Model Answer: It's my father who I admire the most, primarily for his unwavering determination and resilience in the face of adversity.

Question 2: Who is your closest friend?

Model Answer: It is Jane who is my closest friend. We share countless common interests and have been inseparable since childhood.

Question 3: When do you feel most relaxed?

Model Answer: It is when I'm listening to classical music that I feel most relaxed. The soothing tunes help clear my mind.

Question 4: When do you usually start your day?

Model Answer: It's at 6 a.m. that I usually start my day. I find early mornings to be the most productive time.

Question 5: Where do you see yourself in five years?

Model Answer: It is in the field of AI research that I see myself in five years, making significant contributions.

Question 6: Where is your favorite vacation destination?

Model Answer: It is the breathtaking landscapes of Switzerland that make it my favorite vacation destination.

Question 7: What do you like most about your current job?

Model Answer: What I satisfy most about my current job is the opportunity it provides for continuous learning and growth.

Question 8: What is your favorite pastime?

Model Answer: What I love doing in my spare time is reading. It's the diverse perspectives that I encounter in books that truly fascinate me.

Question 9: Why did you choose your current career?

Model Answer: What drew me to my current career is the chance to make a positive impact in people's lives.

Question 10: Why do you enjoy learning English?

Model Answer: What I enjoy about learning English is that it opens doors to understanding different cultures and perspectives.

Question 11: Which part of the day do you like the most?

Model Answer: It's the serene calm of the early morning that I like the most.

Question 12: Which do you prefer, reading books or watching movies?

Model Answer: It is reading books that I prefer. It's the imagination and introspection that reading provokes which I find appealing.

Sử dụng làm nổi bật thông tin quan trọng trong bài nói Part 2

Câu chẻ có thể được dùng để làm câu giới thiệu ngay từ đầu phần thi này. Ví dụ:

1. Describe a toy that you often played with as a child.

  • Speaking of my childhood toys, it is the red toy car that I often played with. I was absolutely fascinated by its sleek design and bright color.

  • What I frequently played with as a child was a red toy car. Its sleek design and bright color captured my imagination.

2. Describe a place that you visited.

  • When it comes to the places I've visited, it is the bustling city of New York that left a significant impression on me.

  • What left a significant impression on me among the places I've visited is the bustling city of New York.

3. Describe a terrible service you received.

  • Speaking of poor service, it was the experience at a local café last week that was particularly terrible. The staff was rude and the order took too long to arrive.

  • What was particularly terrible in terms of service I received was the experience at a local café last week. The staff's rudeness and the long wait for my order made it an awful experience.

4. Describe a time when you helped someone.

  • When recalling times when I've helped someone, it's the moment when I assisted an elderly lady with her groceries that stands out to me.

  • What stands out to me when I think about a time when I helped someone is the moment when I assisted an elderly lady with her groceries.

5. Describe a difficult decision that you made.

  • Speaking of difficult decisions, it was choosing to move abroad for my studies that was particularly challenging for me.

  • What was particularly challenging for me in terms of difficult decisions was choosing to move abroad for my studies.

Ngoài ra, các câu chẻ còn có thể được dùng để làm công cụ nổi bật thông tin quan trọng trong bài nói Part 2. Ví dụ, khi đề bài yêu cầu tả một người nổi tiếng (Describe a famous person), thí sinh có thể dùng cấu trúc câu chẻ để nói về yếu tố khiến mình ấn tượng nhất về người đó.

  • Speaking of his personality, it is his perseverance that makes him my role model. 

  • What makes me most impressed about him is his perseverance.

image-alt

Tương tự như vậy, đối với mỗi bài nói Part 2 thí sinh nên chọn ra một thông tin gây ấn tượng nhất, hoặc nổi bật nhất để được làm nổi bật lên bằng câu chẻ. Điều này không chỉ thể hiện khả năng ngữ pháp như đã đề cập mà còn cho thấy khả năng tổ chức diễn ngôn ở trình độ nâng cao, khiến cho bài nói rõ ràng, mạch lạc hơn nhiều. Ví dụ minh hoạ:

1. Describe a toy that you often played with as a child.

  • When it comes to my childhood toys, it is the creativity that my Lego set sparked in me that stands out the most.

  • What makes me remember my Lego set so vividly is the creativity it sparked in me.

2. Describe a place that you visited.

  • Speaking of the places I've visited, it is the tranquillity and natural beauty of the Swiss Alps that left the most profound impression on me.

  • What makes the Swiss Alps unforgettable to me is their tranquillity and natural beauty.

3. Describe a terrible service you received

  • Reflecting on the poor services I've experienced, it was the blatant disrespect shown by the staff at a certain restaurant that was particularly appalling.

  • What was particularly appalling about that restaurant service was the blatant disrespect shown by the staff.

4. Describe a time when you helped someone

  • When I think about the times I've helped others, it's the joy I was able to bring to a homeless man by providing him a warm meal that I remember the most.

  • What I remember most about that time I helped a homeless man is the joy that providing him a warm meal brought.

5. Describe a difficult decision that you made

  • As for difficult decisions, it's the choice to quit a high-paying job to pursue my passion that resonates with me the most.

  • What resonates with me the most about that difficult decision is the choice to quit a high-paying job to pursue my passion.

Lưu ý

Việc sử dụng câu chẻ cần người học sử dụng thì một cách chính xác (It is/ It was … ). Do đó hãy luôn xác định thì sẽ sử dụng cho câu hỏi trước khi bắt đầu trả lời. Điều này sẽ giúp hạn chế lỗi sai về thì trong bài thi IELTS Speaking.

‘That’ trong câu chẻ cũng có thể được lược bỏ khi đóng vai trò tân ngữ/túc từ trong mệnh đề chính trong các trường hợp không trang trọng.

Ví dụ: “It was your son (that) I met.”

Luyện tập

Exercise 1

Người học sử dụng câu chẻ để trả lời các câu hỏi sau:

  1. What kind of bag do you like to carry? (Why?)

  2. What can you see from the windows of your home?

  3. What is your favourite wild animal? (Why/Why not?)

  4. What do you think is more important, eating healthy or doing exercise?

  5. What part of your lifestyle would you most like to make healthier?

  6. Where would you like to go when you need concentration?

  7. What makes it hard to concentrate?

  8. What do you think of "a good teacher"?

  9. What are the most important qualities of "a good teacher"?

  10. What do you do on your day off?

  11. What do you value most about your friends? (Why?)

  12. Which day is your favorite day?

  13. What are your career ambitions or goals?

  14. What were your ambitions when you were a child?

  15. What are the differences between old and modern arts?

  16. What type of music do you most like to listen to? (Why?/Why not?)

  17. When do you usually listen to music? (Why?/Why not?)

  18. What do you generally do when you stay up late? (Why/Why not?)

  19. When was the first time you ate chocolate?

  20. Why do you think it's so popular?

  21. What type of jewelry do you like to buy?

  22. Why do you think some people wear a piece of jewelry for a long time?

  23. Where do you go to school?

  24. What changes do you want to make in your school?

  25. What do you enjoy doing most at weekends?

  26. Where do you put your keys at home?

  27. What made you happy when you were little?

  28. When do you feel happy at work?

  29. What do you think will make you feel happy in the future?

  30. Which do you think makes louder noise, in cities or in the countryside?

  31. What noise do we have in cities?

  32. What kind of noise do cars make?

  33. Who taught you how to fix things when you were young?

Exercise 2

Answer the following Part 2 Cue Card:

Describe an important decision.

You should say:

  • What the decision was

  • When you took the decision

  • What the results of the decision was

And explain why you made that decision.

Đáp án tham khảo

Exercise 1

1. What kind of bag do you like to carry? (Why?)

Model Answer: It's a lightweight backpack that I prefer to carry. It's the convenience and comfort it offers that I find most appealing.

2. What can you see from the windows of your home?

Model Answer: What I can see from the windows of my home is a vibrant park bustling with life.

3. What is your favourite wild animal? (Why/Why not?)

Model Answer: It's the lion that is my favourite wild animal. It's the majesty and strength it symbolizes that I find fascinating.

4. What do you think is more important, eating healthy or doing exercise?

Model Answer: It is both eating healthily and doing exercise that I believe are equally important. It's all about striking a balance.

5. What part of your lifestyle would you most like to make healthier?

Model Answer: It is my eating habits that I would most like to make healthier. I believe we are what we eat.

6. Where would you like to go when you need concentration?

Model Answer: It's a quiet park nearby that I prefer to go to when I need concentration.

7. What makes it hard to concentrate?

Model Answer: What makes it hard for me to concentrate is a noisy environment.

8. What do you think of "a good teacher"?

Model Answer: In my eyes, it is someone who can inspire and motivate students that constitutes a good teacher.

9. What are the most important qualities of "a good teacher"?

Model Answer: What I believe are the most important qualities of a good teacher are patience, understanding, and the ability to engage students in learning.

10. What do you do on your day off?

Model Answer: It's exploring new hobbies and reading books that I usually do on my day off.

11. What do you value most about your friends? (Why?)

Model Answer: It's their unwavering support and honesty that I value most about my friends. They're a safe harbor in a storm.

12. Which day is your favorite day?

Model Answer: It's Sunday that is my favorite day, as it allows me to recharge my batteries for the upcoming week.

13. What are your career ambitions or goals?

Model Answer: It's becoming an influential figure in my field and contributing positively to society that are my career ambitions.

14. What were your ambitions when you were a child?

Model Answer: It was becoming an astronaut that was my ambition when I was a child. I was always fascinated by the stars above.

15. What are the differences between old and modern arts?

Model Answer: What separates old art from modern art is mainly the techniques used and the themes explored.

16. What type of music do you most like to listen to? (Why?/Why not?)

Model Answer: It is classical music that I most enjoy listening to. It's the emotion it evokes that truly resonates with me.

17. When do you usually listen to music? (Why?/Why not?)

Model Answer: It is during my commute that I usually listen to music. It's a great stress-buster and it helps me unwind.

18. What do you generally do when you stay up late? (Why/Why not?)

Model Answer: It is usually reading a book or watching a movie that I do when I stay up late. I find them to be relaxing activities.

19. When was the first time you ate chocolate?

Model Answer: It was when I was about four years old that I first ate chocolate.

20. Why do you think it's so popular?

Model Answer: What makes chocolate so popular, in my opinion, is its unique and irresistible taste.

21. What type of jewelry do you like to buy?

Model Answer: It is minimalist and elegant pieces of jewelry that I prefer to buy.

22. Why do you think some people wear a piece of jewelry for a long time?

Model Answer: What I believe is that some people wear a piece of jewelry for a long time due to its sentimental value or it being a good luck charm.

23. Where do you go to school?

Model Answer: It's at the city university where I go to school.

24. What changes do you want to make in your school?

Model Answer: What I would like to change about my school is the outdated infrastructure and the limited resources for research.

25. What do you enjoy doing most at weekends?

Model Answer: What I enjoy doing most at weekends is spending quality time with my family and exploring new places.

26. Where do you put your keys at home?

Model Answer: It is on a small table near the entrance that I put my keys at home.

27. What made you happy when you were little?

Model Answer: What made me happy when I was little was playing with my friends in the park.

28. When do you feel happy at work?

Model Answer: It is when I successfully complete a challenging task that I feel happy at work.

29. What do you think will make you feel happy in the future?

Model Answer: What I believe will make me feel happy in the future is achieving my goals and living a balanced life.

30. Which do you think makes louder noise, in cities or in the countryside?

Model Answer: It is in cities that I believe the noise level is louder due to the hustle and bustle.

31. What noise do we have in cities?

Model Answer: What we typically hear in cities is the noise of traffic, construction, and bustling crowds.

32. What kind of noise do cars make?

Model Answer: What noise cars typically make is the sound of their engines revving and horns honking.

33. Who taught you how to fix things when you were young?

Model Answer: It was my father who taught me how to fix things when I was young.

Exercise 2

Certainly, I'd be happy to describe an important decision I made. It was about two years ago that I had to make a crucial choice - to stay in my comfortable but monotonous job or to pursue my passion for environmental studies.

As for when I took this decision, it was in the winter of 2021. I had been working in a corporate job for a few years by then and had achieved a good measure of success. However, there was a feeling of emptiness that I couldn't shake off. My job was well-paid and stable, but it did not ignite the spark in me. It was during a conversation with an old friend, who was working on a wildlife conservation project, that I felt a deep longing to do something similar - something that mattered to me and the world at large.

As for the results of this decision, it's the fulfillment and sense of purpose that I feel now that I consider as the most significant outcome. I am currently pursuing a master's degree in environmental studies and am involved in several conservation projects. It's not easy, and it does come with its own set of challenges, but I have never been happier. My work now aligns with my values and interests, and that is something money can't buy.

Reflecting on why I made this decision, it is my deep-seated passion for the environment and a desire to make a difference that primarily drove me. I realized that I wanted my work to have a positive impact and align with my personal beliefs. And, it is this inner conviction that I believe is the most important when making such life-altering decisions.

Tổng kết

Bài viết đã cung cấp cho người học cách sử dụng câu chẻ một cách tự nhiên trong bài thi Nói, đồng thời đã cung cấp nhiều bài tập để luyện tập cho người học. Ứng  dụng câu chẻ một cách linh hoạt sẽ giúp người học trả lời các câu hỏi một cách tự nhiên hơn trong phần thi Nói của mình.

Xem thêm:


Works Cited

"Cleft Sentences ( It Was in June We Got Married .)." Cambridge Dictionary | English Dictionary, Translations & Thesaurus, dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/cleft-sentences-it-was-in-june-we-got-married.

ZIM, Anh N. "IELTS Speaking Level 4.5: Cách ứng Dụng Cleft Sentence (Câu Chẻ) Vào Câu Trả Lời." Zim.vn, 7 July 2023, zim.vn/cach-ung-dung-cleft-sentence-cau-che-va-vao-bai-thi-ielts-speaking.

Bạn cần gấp chứng chỉ IELTS để du học, định cư, tốt nghiệp, hay thăng tiến trong sự nghiệp nhanh chóng? Đạt điểm cao trong thời gian ngắn với khóa học luyện thi IELTS cấp tốc hôm nay!

Trần Xuân Đạo

Đã kiểm duyệt nội dung
• Là cử nhân loại giỏi chuyên ngành sư phạm tiếng Anh, điểm IELTS 8.0 ở cả hai lần thi • Hiện là giảng viên IELTS toàn thời gian tại ZIM Academy. • Triết lý giáo dục của tôi là ai cũng có thể học tiếng Anh, chỉ cần cố gắng và có phương pháp học tập phù hợp. • Tôi từng được đánh giá là "mất gốc" tiếng Anh ngày còn đi học phổ thông. Tuy nhiên, khi được tiếp cận với nhiều phương pháp giáo dục khác nhau và chọn được cách học phù hợp, tôi dần trở nên yêu thích tiếng Anh và từ đó dần cải thiện khả năng ngôn ngữ của mình.

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