Tổng hợp Mind map Các loại từ trong tiếng Anh dành cho người vừa bắt đầu học

Mind map tổng hợp Parts of Speech - Các loại từ trong tiếng Anh dành cho người vừa bắt đầu học
tong hop mind map cac loai tu trong tieng anh danh cho nguoi vua bat dau hoc

Parts of Speech là một khái niệm quan trọng trong việc hiểu và sử dụng ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh. Đối với những người mới bắt đầu học tiếng Anh, việc nắm vững các loại từ (Parts of Speech) là một bước quan trọng để xây dựng nền tảng ngôn ngữ mạnh mẽ.

Trên bản đồ tư duy (mind map) sau đây, chúng ta sẽ tổng hợp và khám phá các loại từ căn bản trong tiếng Anh.

Noun (Danh từ)

Proper Nouns: Tên riêng 

Dưới đây là một số tên riêng phổ biến mà chúng ta thường gặp trong cuộc sống hàng ngày:

Tên người

Tến thành phố

Tên quốc gia

John

London

United States

Mary

Paris

China

David

New York

India

Sarah

Tokyo

Vietnam

Michael

Beijing

Russia

Jennifer

Sydney

Germany

James

Rome

France

Emily

Cairo

United Kingdom

Robert

Moscow 

Japan

Jessica

Rio de Janeiro

Australia.

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Xem thêm:

Common Nouns: Danh từ chung

Có 2 loại cơ bản của danh từ chung (common nouns) trong tiếng Anh:

Danh từ đếm được

Danh từ không đếm được

dog

water

book

music

table

advice

Orange 

experience

bird

funiture

car

fruit

doll

money

class

information

shirt

knowledge

apple

coffee

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Collective Nouns: Danh từ tập hợp (ví dụ: flock, team)

Danh từ tập hợp

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

army

Đội quân

The army marched in formation.

band

Ban nhạc

The band performed a lively concert.

herd

đàn

We saw a herd of elephants at the national park.

fleet 

Đội tàu, đội xe

The fleet of ships set sail towards the horizon.

choir

Dàn hợp xướng

The choir sang beautifully at the concert.

pack

bầy

The pack of wolves hunted together in the forest.

crew

đội

The crew prepared the airplane for take off.

swarm

Đàn, bầy

A swarm of bees buzzed around the flowers.

class

Lớp học

The class listened attentively to the teacher's lecture.

flock

đàn

The flock of birds flew in perfect formation.

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Abstract Nouns: Danh từ trừu tượng 

Danh từ tập hợp

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

love

Tình yêu

Love is a powerful emotion that can bring people together.

freedom

Sự tự do

Freedom is a fundamental human right.

happiness

Hạnh phúc

Everyone seeks happiness in life.

courage

Sự dũng cảm

It takes courage to stand up for what you believe in.

justice

Công bằng

The pursuit of justice is essential for a fair society.

wisdom

Sự thông thái

Wisdom comes with experience and knowledge.

patience

Sự kiên nhẫn

Patience is a virtue that helps us navigate challenges.

truth

Sự thật

Seeking the truth is a noble pursuit.

hope

Hi vọng

Hope gives us strength and optimism for the future.

friendship

Tình bạn

Friendship is a special bond between individuals.

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Compound Nouns: Danh từ ghép 

Danh từ ghép

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

Toothbrush 

bàn chải đánh răng

I need to buy a new toothbrush.

Mailbox 

hòm thư

The mailman dropped the letter in the mailbox.

Raincoat 

áo mưa

Don't forget to bring your raincoat, it might rain later.

Football 

Bóng đá

He enjoys playing football with his friends.

Bookshelf 

giá sách

I organized my books on the bookshelf.

Headphones 

tai nghe

He put on his headphones to listen to music.

Breakfast 

bữa sáng

What did you have for breakfast this morning?

Firefighter 

lính cứu hỏa

The firefighter bravely entered the burning building.

Cupcake 

bánh bông lan

She baked delicious cupcakes for the party.

Sunglasses 

kính mát

She wore her sunglasses to protect her eyes from the sun.

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Xem thêm: Đuôi danh từ (Noun suffixes) | Các đuôi danh từ thường gặp

Verb (Động từ)

Action Verbs: Động từ chỉ hành động 

Động từ chỉ hành động

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

run

chạy

She loves to run in the park every morning.

speak

Nói chuyện

He can speak multiple languages fluently.

jump

nhảy

The athlete performed a high jump during the competition.

dance

Nhảy múa

The couple danced gracefully at their wedding reception.

swim

bơi

Let's go swimming at the beach this weekend.

write

viết

She enjoys writing stories in her free time.

sing

hát

The singer has a beautiful voice and loves to sing on stage.

drive

Lái xe

He learned how to drive a car when he turned 18.

read

đọc

She spends her evenings reading books in the library.

play

chơi

The children gathered in the park to play games together.

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Linking Verbs: Động từ nối 

Động từ nối

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

be

She is a talented musician.

seem

Có vẻ

The weather seems nice today.

become

Trở thành

He became a doctor after years of studying.

appear

Xuất hiện

The magician appeared on stage and amazed the audience.

feel

Cảm thấy

I feel tired after a long day at work.

look

Trông có vẻ

She looks happy in the photograph.

sound

Nghe có vẻ

The music sounds beautiful and soothing.

smell

Ngửi có mùi

The flowers smell fragrant in the garden.

taste

Có vị

The soup tastes delicious with its rich flavors.

remain

Vẫn còn

Despite the challenges, their love remains strong.

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Transitive Verbs: Động từ có tân ngữ 

Động từ có tân ngữ

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

eat

ăn

She eats an apple for breakfast every day.

love

yêu

They love their pet dog unconditionally.

buy

mua

He buys a new car to replace his old one.

send

gửi

She sends a birthday card to her best friend.

cook

Nấu ăn

He cooks a delicious dinner for his family.

open

mở

She opens the door and invites the guests inside.

paint

sơn

The artist paints a beautiful landscape on the canvas.

build

Xây dựng

They are building a new house in the neighborhood.

teach

dạy

The teacher teaches mathematics to the students.

kick

đá

She kicks the ball with great force.

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Intransitive Verbs: Động từ không có tân ngữ

Động từ không có tân ngữ

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

sleep

ngủ

She sleeps peacefully through the night

die

mất

The old man died peacefully in his sleep.

laugh

cười

The children laughed at the funny clown.

cry

khóc

She couldn't help but cry when she heard the sad news.

sing

hát

The singer sang a beautiful song at the concert.

run

chạy

He ran as fast as he could to catch the bus.

dance

Nhảy múa

They danced gracefully on the stage, showcasing their talent.

walk

Đi bộ

She walks to work every day instead of taking the bus.

blink

blink

He blinked his eyes several times to clear his vision.

smile

smile

The little girl smiled brightly when she saw her favorite toy.

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Causative Verbs: Động từ khiến làm

Động từ khiến làm

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

make

Làm cho

My parents made me clean my room before going out.

let

Cho phép

She lets her children watch TV for an hour every day.

have

để

They had their car repaired at the mechanic's shop.

help

giúp

The teacher helped the students understand the difficult concept

allow

Cho phép

The manager allowed the employees to take a day off for personal reasons.

persuade

Thuyết phục

He persuaded his friend to join him on the adventure trip.

force

Ép buộc

The dictator forced the citizens to obey his orders.

require

Yêu cầu

The job requires you to have excellent communication skills.

enable

Cho phép

The new software enables users to edit photos easily.

entice

Lôi kéo

The delicious smell of the bakery enticed customers to enter.

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Factitive Verbs: Động từ tạo ra tân ngữ

Động từ tạo ra tân ngữ

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

elect 

bầu chọn

They elected him as the new president.

make 

tạo ra

She made a cake for the birthday party.

appoint 

bổ nhiệm

The company appointed her as the new manager.

name 

đặt tên

They named their baby girl Lily.

designate 

chỉ định

The teacher designated him as the class representative.

hire 

tuyển dụng

The company hired him as a software engineer.

select 

chọn lựa

They selected her to be part of the team.

nominate 

đề cử

The committee nominated him for the prestigious award.

crown 

đính vương miện

The queen crowned her as the new queen.

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Auxiliary/Helping Verbs: Động từ trợ 

Động từ trợ

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

be

She is studying for her exams.

have

They have finished their homework.

will

sẽ

I will go to the party tomorrow.

can

Có thể

He can speak three languages fluently.

should

nên

You should eat more fruits and vegetables.

could

Có thể

She could play the piano when she was young.

do

làm

Did you finish your homework?

would

sẽ

He would help you if you ask.

May 

Có thể

You may leave the meeting early if you have a valid reason.

must

Bắt buộc

We must finish the project by the end of the week.

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Adjective (Tính từ)

Compound Adjectives: Tính từ ghép

Tính từ ghép

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

well-known

Nổi tiếng

He is a well-known actor in Hollywood.

high-quality

Chất lượng cao

The restaurant serves high-quality food.

long-term 

Dài hạn

They have a long-term plan for their business.

open-minded

Cởi mở

She is known for her open-mindedness and acceptance of different ideas.

self-confident

Tự tin

The speaker appeared self-confident on stage.

eco-friendly

Thân thiện với môi trường

The company promotes eco-friendly practices.

hardworking 

Chăm chỉ

She is a hardworking student who always puts in extra effort.

fast-paced

Nhanh chóng

The city has a fast-paced lifestyle.

well-behaved

Cư xử tốt

The children were well-behaved during the school assembly.

time-consuming

Tốn thời gian

Writing a research paper can be time-consuming.

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Gradable Adjectives: Tính từ có thể so sánh 

Tính từ có thể so sánh

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

big

lớn

Mount Everest is the biggest mountain in the world.

fast 

nhanh

The high-speed train is the fastest mode of transportation.

intelligent 

Thông minh

Einstein is considered one of the most intelligent scientists in history.

beautiful 

Xinh đẹp

The sunset at the beach is the most beautiful I've ever seen.

good

tốt

This is the best movie I've ever seen.

bad

xấu

That was the worst meal I've ever had.

little

ít

He has the least experience among the candidates.

Tall 

cao

The giraffe is the tallest animal on land.

happy

Vui vẻ

The birth of their child was the happiest moment of their lives

Many 

nhiều

The library has the most books in town.

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Non-gradable Adjectives: Tính từ không so sánh được 

Tính từ không so sánh được

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

dead 

chết

The flowers are dead.

perfect 

hoàn hảo

The painting is perfect.

unique 

duy nhất

Each snowflake is unique.

excellent 

xuất sắc

She gave an excellent presentation.

complete 

hoàn chỉnh

The project is complete.

impossible 

không thể

Climbing that mountain alone is impossible.

pregnant 

mang bầu

She is pregnant.

square 

vuông

The table is square.

round 

tròn

The moon is round.

final 

cuối cùng

This is the final decision.

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Adverb (Trạng từ)

Frequency Adverbs: Trạng từ tần suất 

Trạng từ tần suất

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

always 

Luôn luôn

She always arrives on time for work.

sometimes

Đôi khi

I sometimes go jogging in the morning.

never

Không bao giờ

He never eats spicy food.

rarely

Hiếm khi

They rarely go to the movies.

often

Thường xuyên

We often have dinner together as a family.

occasionally 

Thỉnh thoảng

They occasionally travel to different countries.

frequently 

Thường xuyên

The bus arrives frequently during rush hour.

seldom 

Hiếm khi

She seldom complains about anything.

regularly 

Đều đặn

He always helps his friends when they need him.

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Manner Adverbs: Trạng từ cách thức

Trạng từ cách thức

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

quickly 

nhanh chóng

She completed the task quickly and efficiently.

carefully 

Cẩn thận

He handled the delicate items carefully.

slowly 

Chậm chạp

The traffic moved slowly due to the heavy rain.

loudly 

To lớn

The music was playing loudly at the party.

quietly 

Im lặng

The baby slept quietly in her crib.

skillfully 

Tài ba

The artist painted skillfully with intricate details.

eagerly 

Hăm hở

The children eagerly opened their presents on Christmas morning

calmly 

Bình tĩnh

She spoke calmly during the stressful situation.

smoothly 

Mượt mà

The car ride went smoothly without any bumps.

enthusiastically 

Hăng hái

The team members enthusiastically cheered for their victory.

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Time Adverbs: Trạng từ thời gian 

Trạng từ thời gian

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

today 

Hôm nay

I will meet her for lunch today.

soon 

sớm

The movie will start soon.

yesterday 

Hôm qua

We went to the beach yesterday.

tomorrow 

Ngày mai

They have an important meeting tomorrow.

now 

Bây giờ

He is busy with work now.

already 

Đã 

She has already finished her homework.

recently 

Gần đây

I visited my grandparents recently.

currently 

Hiện tại

The company is currently undergoing restructuring.

eventually 

Cuối cùng

They will eventually find a solution to the problem.

suddenly 

Đột ngột

The phone rang suddenly, startling everyone in the room.

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Place Adverbs: Trạng từ địa điểm 

Trạng từ tần suất

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

here

Ở dây

The keys are here on the table.

there

Ở đó

The bookstore is located there across the street.

everywhere

Khắp nơi

The children's toys were scattered everywhere in the room.

nowhere 

Không đâu

He could find his wallet nowhere in the house.

outside 

Bên ngoài

They enjoyed playing outside in the park.

inside 

Bên trong

The cat is hiding inside the box.

nearby 

Gần đây

There is a café nearby where we can grab a coffee.

abroad

Nước ngoài

They are planning to study abroad next year.

upstairs

Lầu trên

She went upstairs to her bedroom to get her book.

downstairs

Lầu dưới

He rushed downstairs to answer the doorbell.

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Conjunctive Adverbs: Trạng từ liên kết 

Trạng từ liên kết 

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

however

tuy nhiên

She studied hard; however, she didn't perform well in the exam.

therefore

do đó

The weather was bad; therefore, the outdoor event was canceled.

Furthermore

hơn nữa

She is talented and hardworking; furthermore, she is a great team player.

Meanwhile 

trong khi đó

He was busy with his work; meanwhile, his colleagues were enjoying a coffee break.

nevertheless 

tuy nhiên

The project faced challenges; nevertheless, they managed to complete it on time.

moreover 

hơn nữa

The project is not only on schedule but moreover, it is also under budget.

consequently 

do đó

He didn't study for the exam; consequently, he failed.

nonetheless 

tuy nhiên

The weather was bad; nonetheless, they decided to go hiking.

thus 

do đó

He saved enough money; thus, he was able to buy a new car.

On the other hand

mặt khác

She enjoys swimming, but on the other hand, she dislikes running.

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Preposition (Giới từ)

Place Prepositions: Giới từ địa điểm

Giới từ địa điểm

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

at

tại

She is waiting for you at the bus stop.

in

trong

The keys are in the drawer.

on

trên

The book is on the table.

under

dưới

The cat is sleeping under the bed.

above

Phía trên

The painting is hanging above the fireplace.

below

Phía dưới

The shoes are kept below the coat rack.

beside

Bên cạnh

He sat beside his best friend during the concert.

between

Ở giữa

The car is parked between two trees.

behind

Đằng sau

The playground is behind the school building.

Next to

Kế bên

The supermarket is next to the post office.

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Time Prepositions: Giới từ thời gian

Giới từ thời gian

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

during 

trong suốt

I like to read books during my free time.

until 

cho đến khi

They waited at the bus stop until the bus arrived.

after

sau khi

We went for a walk after dinner.

before

trước khi

Please submit your assignment before the deadline.

at

vào

The meeting is scheduled at 2 p.m.

on

vào ngày, vào thời điểm cụ thể

The party is on Saturday.

in

trong khoảng thời gian, trong tháng/năm

She will start her new job in September.

since

từ khi

I have known him since we were in high school.

by

trước một thời điểm cụ thể

Please complete the report by Friday.

from...to/until

từ...đến

The store is open from Monday to Saturday.

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Other Prepositions: Giới từ khác

Giới từ khác

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

besides 

ngoài ra

Besides English, she also speaks French and German.

despite 

mặc dù

Despite the rain, we went for a walk.

without 

không có

He managed to finish the project without any help.

within 

trong khoảng thời gian, trong phạm vi

Please complete the task within the next hour.

among 

giữa, trong số

The prize was divided among the three winners.

around 

xung quanh

We walked around the park and enjoyed the scenery.

beneath 

dưới

The cat hid beneath the table.

except 

ngoại trừ

Everyone attended the meeting except for John.

towards 

về phía

She walked towards the bus stop.

with 

với

He went to the party with his friends.

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Pronoun (Đại từ)

Personal Pronouns: Đại từ nhân xưng

Đại từ nhân xưng

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

tôi

I am going to the store.

you

bạn

Are you coming to the party?

he

Anh ấy

He is studying for his exam.

she

Cô ấy

She is reading a book.

it

The cat is sleeping. It looks tired.

we

Chúng tôi

We are going on a trip.

they

họ

They went to the beach.

me

tôi

Can you pass me the salt?

him

Anh ấy 

I saw him at the park

her

Cô ấy

I gave her a gift for her birthday.

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Demonstrative Pronouns: Đại từ chỉ định

Đại từ chỉ định

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

this

đây

This is my favorite book.

that

đó

That car belongs to my neighbor.

these

Những cái này

These apples are fresh.

those

Những cái đó

Those shoes look comfortable.

such

Như vậy

She made such a beautiful cake.

The former

Cái trước

I prefer the former option.

The latter

Cái sau

She chose the latter alternative.

one

một

One is never too old to learn.

ones

Những cái

Can you pass me the blue ones?

another

Một cái khác

I need another pen.

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Interrogative Pronouns: Đại từ nghi vấn

Đại từ nghi vấn

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

who

ai

Who is that person over there?

whom

ai

Whom did you invite to the party?

what

Cái gì

What is your favorite color?

which

nào

Which book do you recommend?

whose

Của ai

Whose pen is this?

where

Ở đâu

Where is the nearest grocery store?

when

Khi nào

When is your birthday?

why

Tại áo

Why did you choose that option?

how

Như thế nào

How did you solve the problem?

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Relative Pronouns: Đại từ quan hệ 

Đại từ quan hệ

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

who

người

The person who called me is my friend.

whom

người

The girl whom I met yesterday is a talented musician.

which

cái

The book which is on the table is mine.

that

cái

The car that I bought last year is very reliable.

whose

của ai

The student whose notebook was lost is looking for it.

where

nơi

I visited the place where I grew up.

when

khi

This is the day when we first met.

why

tại sao

The reason why she left the party early is unclear.

what

cái gì

Tell me what you want for your birthday.

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Conjunction (Liên từ)

Coordinating Conjunctions: Liên từ đồng tầm

Liên từ đồng tầm

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

and

I like to read books and watch movies.

but

nhưng

She studied hard, but she didn't pass the exam.

or

hoặc

Would you like tea or coffee?

nor

Cũng không

He neither confirmed nor denied the allegations.

for

He didn't eat much, for he wasn't hungry.

yet

Nhưng mà

She is tired, yet she keeps working.

so

Vì vậy

It was raining, so we stayed indoos.

because

Bởi vì

He couldn't attend the meeting because he was sick.

either...or

hoặc…hoặc

You can either come with us or stay here.

neither...nor

Không…cũng không

Neither John nor Mary attended the party.

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Subordinating Conjunctions: Liên từ phụ thuộc

Liên từ phụ thuộc

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

because 

Bởi vì

I stayed home because it was raining.

although

Mặc dù

Although it was cold, she went out in a T-shirt.

if

nếu

If you study hard, you will pass the exam.

when

khi

I will call you when I arrive at the airport.

while

Trong khi

She listened to music while doing her homework.

until

Cho đến khi

They played games until it got dark.

after

Sau khi

We went out for dinner after the movie ended.

before

Trước khi

Please finish your homework before going to bed.

since

Kể từ khi

I have known him since we were in college.

whether

liệu

I don't know whether he will come or not.

image-alt

Correlative conjunction 

Các liên từ đồng phủ

Định nghĩa

Ví dụ

either...or

hoặc...hoặc

You can either come with us or stay at home.

neither...nor

không...cũng không

Neither John nor Mary attended the party.

both...and 

cả...và

She is both intelligent and hardworking.

not only...but also

không chỉ...mà còn

He is not only a talented musician but also a skilled painter.

whether...or 

dù...hay

I don't know whether he will come or not.

as...as

càng...càng

He is as tall as his brother.

just as...so

cũng như...vậy

Just as she loves to sing, so does her sister.

such...that

quá...đến mức

It was such a hot day that we decided to go swimming.

no sooner...than

không chừng...thì

No sooner had she arrived home than it started to rain.

image-alt

Hiện nay, Anh ngữ ZIM đang tổ chức các khóa học English Foundation cam kết đầu ra Zero-risk giúp người mới bắt đầu học tiếng Anh có nền tảng vững về từ vựng – ngữ pháp – phát âm để có thể diễn tả cơ bản các ý tưởng của mình, đọc/nghe hiểu được ý chính, hiểu và vận dụng các cấu trúc câu ngữ pháp tiếng anh cơ bản,…. Tham khảo ngay khoá học để biết thêm thông tin chi tiết nhé!

Tổng kết

Tổng hợp các loại từ (Parts of Speech) trong tiếng Anh là một bước quan trọng cho những người mới bắt đầu học ngôn ngữ này. Bằng cách nắm vững các danh từ, đại từ, động từ, tính từ, trạng từ và các loại từ khác, người học sẽ có khả năng xây dựng và sử dụng câu thành công hơn.


Nguồn tham khảo:

Herring, P. (2016). Complete English grammar rules. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.

Tham khảo thêm khóa học tiếng Anh giao tiếp tại ZIM, giúp học viên cải thiện các kỹ năng giao tiếp và tăng phản xạ trong tình huống thực tế.

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