Parts of Speech là một khái niệm quan trọng trong việc hiểu và sử dụng ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh. Đối với những người mới bắt đầu học tiếng Anh, việc nắm vững các loại từ (Parts of Speech) là một bước quan trọng để xây dựng nền tảng ngôn ngữ mạnh mẽ.
Trên bản đồ tư duy (mind map) sau đây, chúng ta sẽ tổng hợp và khám phá các loại từ căn bản trong tiếng Anh.
Noun (Danh từ)
Proper Nouns: Tên riêng
Dưới đây là một số tên riêng phổ biến mà chúng ta thường gặp trong cuộc sống hàng ngày:
Tến thành phố
Tên quốc gia
Rio de Janeiro
Common Nouns: Danh từ chung
Có 2 loại cơ bản của danh từ chung (common nouns) trong tiếng Anh:
Danh từ đếm được
Danh từ không đếm được
Collective Nouns: Danh từ tập hợp (ví dụ: flock, team)
Danh từ tập hợp
The army marched in formation.
The band performed a lively concert.
We saw a herd of elephants at the national park.
Đội tàu, đội xe
The fleet of ships set sail towards the horizon.
Dàn hợp xướng
The choir sang beautifully at the concert.
The pack of wolves hunted together in the forest.
The crew prepared the airplane for take off.
A swarm of bees buzzed around the flowers.
The class listened attentively to the teacher's lecture.
The flock of birds flew in perfect formation.
Abstract Nouns: Danh từ trừu tượng
Danh từ tập hợp
Love is a powerful emotion that can bring people together.
Sự tự do
Freedom is a fundamental human right.
Everyone seeks happiness in life.
Sự dũng cảm
It takes courage to stand up for what you believe in.
The pursuit of justice is essential for a fair society.
Sự thông thái
Wisdom comes with experience and knowledge.
Sự kiên nhẫn
Patience is a virtue that helps us navigate challenges.
Seeking the truth is a noble pursuit.
Hope gives us strength and optimism for the future.
Friendship is a special bond between individuals.
Compound Nouns: Danh từ ghép
Danh từ ghép
bàn chải đánh răng
I need to buy a new toothbrush.
The mailman dropped the letter in the mailbox.
Don't forget to bring your raincoat, it might rain later.
He enjoys playing football with his friends.
I organized my books on the bookshelf.
He put on his headphones to listen to music.
What did you have for breakfast this morning?
lính cứu hỏa
The firefighter bravely entered the burning building.
bánh bông lan
She baked delicious cupcakes for the party.
She wore her sunglasses to protect her eyes from the sun.
Verb (Động từ)
Action Verbs: Động từ chỉ hành động
Động từ chỉ hành động
She loves to run in the park every morning.
He can speak multiple languages fluently.
The athlete performed a high jump during the competition.
The couple danced gracefully at their wedding reception.
Let's go swimming at the beach this weekend.
She enjoys writing stories in her free time.
The singer has a beautiful voice and loves to sing on stage.
He learned how to drive a car when he turned 18.
She spends her evenings reading books in the library.
The children gathered in the park to play games together.
Linking Verbs: Động từ nối
Động từ nối
She is a talented musician.
The weather seems nice today.
He became a doctor after years of studying.
The magician appeared on stage and amazed the audience.
I feel tired after a long day at work.
Trông có vẻ
She looks happy in the photograph.
Nghe có vẻ
The music sounds beautiful and soothing.
Ngửi có mùi
The flowers smell fragrant in the garden.
The soup tastes delicious with its rich flavors.
Despite the challenges, their love remains strong.
Transitive Verbs: Động từ có tân ngữ
Động từ có tân ngữ
She eats an apple for breakfast every day.
They love their pet dog unconditionally.
He buys a new car to replace his old one.
She sends a birthday card to her best friend.
He cooks a delicious dinner for his family.
She opens the door and invites the guests inside.
The artist paints a beautiful landscape on the canvas.
They are building a new house in the neighborhood.
The teacher teaches mathematics to the students.
She kicks the ball with great force.
Intransitive Verbs: Động từ không có tân ngữ
Động từ không có tân ngữ
She sleeps peacefully through the night
The old man died peacefully in his sleep.
The children laughed at the funny clown.
She couldn't help but cry when she heard the sad news.
The singer sang a beautiful song at the concert.
He ran as fast as he could to catch the bus.
They danced gracefully on the stage, showcasing their talent.
She walks to work every day instead of taking the bus.
He blinked his eyes several times to clear his vision.
The little girl smiled brightly when she saw her favorite toy.
Causative Verbs: Động từ khiến làm
Động từ khiến làm
My parents made me clean my room before going out.
She lets her children watch TV for an hour every day.
They had their car repaired at the mechanic's shop.
The teacher helped the students understand the difficult concept
The manager allowed the employees to take a day off for personal reasons.
He persuaded his friend to join him on the adventure trip.
The dictator forced the citizens to obey his orders.
The job requires you to have excellent communication skills.
The new software enables users to edit photos easily.
The delicious smell of the bakery enticed customers to enter.
Factitive Verbs: Động từ tạo ra tân ngữ
Động từ tạo ra tân ngữ
They elected him as the new president.
She made a cake for the birthday party.
The company appointed her as the new manager.
They named their baby girl Lily.
The teacher designated him as the class representative.
The company hired him as a software engineer.
They selected her to be part of the team.
The committee nominated him for the prestigious award.
đính vương miện
The queen crowned her as the new queen.
Auxiliary/Helping Verbs: Động từ trợ
Động từ trợ
She is studying for her exams.
They have finished their homework.
I will go to the party tomorrow.
He can speak three languages fluently.
You should eat more fruits and vegetables.
She could play the piano when she was young.
Did you finish your homework?
He would help you if you ask.
You may leave the meeting early if you have a valid reason.
We must finish the project by the end of the week.
Adjective (Tính từ)
Compound Adjectives: Tính từ ghép
Tính từ ghép
He is a well-known actor in Hollywood.
Chất lượng cao
The restaurant serves high-quality food.
They have a long-term plan for their business.
She is known for her open-mindedness and acceptance of different ideas.
The speaker appeared self-confident on stage.
Thân thiện với môi trường
The company promotes eco-friendly practices.
She is a hardworking student who always puts in extra effort.
The city has a fast-paced lifestyle.
Cư xử tốt
The children were well-behaved during the school assembly.
Tốn thời gian
Writing a research paper can be time-consuming.
Gradable Adjectives: Tính từ có thể so sánh
Tính từ có thể so sánh
Mount Everest is the biggest mountain in the world.
The high-speed train is the fastest mode of transportation.
Einstein is considered one of the most intelligent scientists in history.
The sunset at the beach is the most beautiful I've ever seen.
This is the best movie I've ever seen.
That was the worst meal I've ever had.
He has the least experience among the candidates.
The giraffe is the tallest animal on land.
The birth of their child was the happiest moment of their lives
The library has the most books in town.
Non-gradable Adjectives: Tính từ không so sánh được
Tính từ không so sánh được
The flowers are dead.
The painting is perfect.
Each snowflake is unique.
She gave an excellent presentation.
The project is complete.
Climbing that mountain alone is impossible.
She is pregnant.
The table is square.
The moon is round.
This is the final decision.
Adverb (Trạng từ)
Frequency Adverbs: Trạng từ tần suất
Trạng từ tần suất
She always arrives on time for work.
I sometimes go jogging in the morning.
Không bao giờ
He never eats spicy food.
They rarely go to the movies.
We often have dinner together as a family.
They occasionally travel to different countries.
The bus arrives frequently during rush hour.
She seldom complains about anything.
He always helps his friends when they need him.
Manner Adverbs: Trạng từ cách thức
Trạng từ cách thức
She completed the task quickly and efficiently.
He handled the delicate items carefully.
The traffic moved slowly due to the heavy rain.
The music was playing loudly at the party.
The baby slept quietly in her crib.
The artist painted skillfully with intricate details.
The children eagerly opened their presents on Christmas morning
She spoke calmly during the stressful situation.
The car ride went smoothly without any bumps.
The team members enthusiastically cheered for their victory.
Time Adverbs: Trạng từ thời gian
Trạng từ thời gian
I will meet her for lunch today.
The movie will start soon.
We went to the beach yesterday.
They have an important meeting tomorrow.
He is busy with work now.
She has already finished her homework.
I visited my grandparents recently.
The company is currently undergoing restructuring.
They will eventually find a solution to the problem.
The phone rang suddenly, startling everyone in the room.
Place Adverbs: Trạng từ địa điểm
Trạng từ tần suất
The keys are here on the table.
The bookstore is located there across the street.
The children's toys were scattered everywhere in the room.
He could find his wallet nowhere in the house.
They enjoyed playing outside in the park.
The cat is hiding inside the box.
There is a café nearby where we can grab a coffee.
They are planning to study abroad next year.
She went upstairs to her bedroom to get her book.
He rushed downstairs to answer the doorbell.
Conjunctive Adverbs: Trạng từ liên kết
Trạng từ liên kết
She studied hard; however, she didn't perform well in the exam.
The weather was bad; therefore, the outdoor event was canceled.
She is talented and hardworking; furthermore, she is a great team player.
trong khi đó
He was busy with his work; meanwhile, his colleagues were enjoying a coffee break.
The project faced challenges; nevertheless, they managed to complete it on time.
The project is not only on schedule but moreover, it is also under budget.
He didn't study for the exam; consequently, he failed.
The weather was bad; nonetheless, they decided to go hiking.
He saved enough money; thus, he was able to buy a new car.
On the other hand
She enjoys swimming, but on the other hand, she dislikes running.
Preposition (Giới từ)
Place Prepositions: Giới từ địa điểm
Giới từ địa điểm
She is waiting for you at the bus stop.
The keys are in the drawer.
The book is on the table.
The cat is sleeping under the bed.
The painting is hanging above the fireplace.
The shoes are kept below the coat rack.
He sat beside his best friend during the concert.
The car is parked between two trees.
The playground is behind the school building.
The supermarket is next to the post office.
Time Prepositions: Giới từ thời gian
Giới từ thời gian
I like to read books during my free time.
cho đến khi
They waited at the bus stop until the bus arrived.
We went for a walk after dinner.
Please submit your assignment before the deadline.
The meeting is scheduled at 2 p.m.
vào ngày, vào thời điểm cụ thể
The party is on Saturday.
trong khoảng thời gian, trong tháng/năm
She will start her new job in September.
I have known him since we were in high school.
trước một thời điểm cụ thể
Please complete the report by Friday.
The store is open from Monday to Saturday.
Other Prepositions: Giới từ khác
Giới từ khác
Besides English, she also speaks French and German.
Despite the rain, we went for a walk.
He managed to finish the project without any help.
trong khoảng thời gian, trong phạm vi
Please complete the task within the next hour.
giữa, trong số
The prize was divided among the three winners.
We walked around the park and enjoyed the scenery.
The cat hid beneath the table.
Everyone attended the meeting except for John.
She walked towards the bus stop.
He went to the party with his friends.
Pronoun (Đại từ)
Personal Pronouns: Đại từ nhân xưng
Đại từ nhân xưng
I am going to the store.
Are you coming to the party?
He is studying for his exam.
She is reading a book.
The cat is sleeping. It looks tired.
We are going on a trip.
They went to the beach.
Can you pass me the salt?
I saw him at the park
I gave her a gift for her birthday.
Demonstrative Pronouns: Đại từ chỉ định
Đại từ chỉ định
This is my favorite book.
That car belongs to my neighbor.
Những cái này
These apples are fresh.
Những cái đó
Those shoes look comfortable.
She made such a beautiful cake.
I prefer the former option.
She chose the latter alternative.
One is never too old to learn.
Can you pass me the blue ones?
Một cái khác
I need another pen.
Interrogative Pronouns: Đại từ nghi vấn
Đại từ nghi vấn
Who is that person over there?
Whom did you invite to the party?
What is your favorite color?
Which book do you recommend?
Whose pen is this?
Where is the nearest grocery store?
When is your birthday?
Why did you choose that option?
Như thế nào
How did you solve the problem?
Relative Pronouns: Đại từ quan hệ
Đại từ quan hệ
The person who called me is my friend.
The girl whom I met yesterday is a talented musician.
The book which is on the table is mine.
The car that I bought last year is very reliable.
The student whose notebook was lost is looking for it.
I visited the place where I grew up.
This is the day when we first met.
The reason why she left the party early is unclear.
Tell me what you want for your birthday.
Conjunction (Liên từ)
Coordinating Conjunctions: Liên từ đồng tầm
Liên từ đồng tầm
I like to read books and watch movies.
She studied hard, but she didn't pass the exam.
Would you like tea or coffee?
He neither confirmed nor denied the allegations.
He didn't eat much, for he wasn't hungry.
She is tired, yet she keeps working.
It was raining, so we stayed indoos.
He couldn't attend the meeting because he was sick.
You can either come with us or stay here.
Neither John nor Mary attended the party.
Subordinating Conjunctions: Liên từ phụ thuộc
Liên từ phụ thuộc
I stayed home because it was raining.
Although it was cold, she went out in a T-shirt.
If you study hard, you will pass the exam.
I will call you when I arrive at the airport.
She listened to music while doing her homework.
Cho đến khi
They played games until it got dark.
We went out for dinner after the movie ended.
Please finish your homework before going to bed.
Kể từ khi
I have known him since we were in college.
I don't know whether he will come or not.
Các liên từ đồng phủ
You can either come with us or stay at home.
Neither John nor Mary attended the party.
She is both intelligent and hardworking.
not only...but also
không chỉ...mà còn
He is not only a talented musician but also a skilled painter.
I don't know whether he will come or not.
He is as tall as his brother.
Just as she loves to sing, so does her sister.
It was such a hot day that we decided to go swimming.
No sooner had she arrived home than it started to rain.
Hiện nay, Anh ngữ ZIM đang tổ chức các khóa học English Foundation cam kết đầu ra Zero-risk giúp người mới bắt đầu học tiếng Anh có nền tảng vững về từ vựng – ngữ pháp – phát âm để có thể diễn tả cơ bản các ý tưởng của mình, đọc/nghe hiểu được ý chính, hiểu và vận dụng các cấu trúc câu ngữ pháp tiếng anh cơ bản,…. Tham khảo ngay khoá học để biết thêm thông tin chi tiết nhé!
Tổng hợp các loại từ (Parts of Speech) trong tiếng Anh là một bước quan trọng cho những người mới bắt đầu học ngôn ngữ này. Bằng cách nắm vững các danh từ, đại từ, động từ, tính từ, trạng từ và các loại từ khác, người học sẽ có khả năng xây dựng và sử dụng câu thành công hơn.
Nguồn tham khảo:
Herring, P. (2016). Complete English grammar rules. Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.